Pitch

The Organic Monetary Fund, set up as a division of the International Monetary Fund, will help to achieve almost all SDGs in record time


Description

Summary

A good part of the SDGs can be achieved with the help of a powerful tool that will: cool the Earth, save biodiversity and the major balances, feed people and give them jobs, hope and peace. All this needs is for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to set up a division called the Organic Monetary Fund (OMF), which will issue a global complementary currency, the crocus, the volume of which is pegged to the growth of healthy living biomass produced under a “Micro-farm Cluster” (MFC) label.

All IMF member countries can volunteer to be part of the OMF scheme provided that their country features MFC-labelled farming cooperatives. An MFC is a group of small, multi-purpose agricultural units applying the principles of agroecology and permaculture (no chemical fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, GMOs, or intensive livestock farming). It allows farmers to share their knowledge, equipment, and services.

The global scientific community provides annual figures on the growth of healthy living biomass produced by each MFC in the volunteering countries. The OMF then grants each member country a sum of corresponding crocuses, then allocated by the country’s government to the  MFCs, where they are distributed among the natural persons working in them. These can then exchange crocuses for the local complementary currency (LCC, in parity with national currency) of their place of residence. The LCC collective, government certified, is entitled to include in its accounting the crocuses received, considered as units of the collateral account to which the LCC is attached. As a last resort, crocuses are repayable from the IMF in the relevant national currency.

Through the power of photosynthesis, the OMF crocus scheme is true natural geoengineering on a very large scale. Diversified living biomass is good for water and spontaneously inflationary. It makes the land indefinitely fertile instead of depleting it, which means growth and abundance for communities all over the world.

Ag Practices


Proposals

Proposal by farmajarn

climatecolab.org

Funding Farmers for Climate Change Mitigation (F2C2M)

>>> Semi-finalist

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Proposal by ALOHEN

climatecolab.org

BEEKEEPING AS MECHANISM OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND LIVELIHOODS IMPROVEMENT

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Proposal by Brazil REDD Alliance

Integrated REDD+: a financial model for forest protection and decarbonization

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Proposal by hira

climatecolab.org

Agroforestry - Climate CoLab

>>> Semi-finalist

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Proposal by naresh

climatecolab.org

Agroforestry for Water and Energy

>>> semi-finalist

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Proposal by maruf

climatecolab.org

Climate proofing the economics of socially sustainable small-scale agricultural systems

>>> Winner

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Proposal by Farmer+

climatecolab.org

Farmer+ is reversing climate change by changing the way we grow & consume food - Climate CoLab

>>> Semi-finalist

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Proposal by YggBrasil

climatecolab.org

Farmer-run seedling nurseries to meet Atlantic Forest restoration goals

>>> Finalist

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Proposal by Sumon

climatecolab.org

Facilitating Smallholder Tree Farming for Better Land Management in the Tropics

>>> supported by YggBrasil

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Proposal by InternationalTreeFoundatio

climatecolab.org

TREECONOMY - The roots of a sustainable future

>>> Semi-finalist

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Proposal by Kijani

climatecolab.org

Synergies of Reforestation & Community Empowerment in Kenya

>>> Winner

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Proposal by SAI Sustainable Agro

climatecolab.org

Scaling-up SAI’s agro-forestry model with tribal population in Central India

>>> Semi-finalist

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Proposal by AIDER team

climatecolab.org

Promoving sustainable development in natural protected areas buffer zone

>>> Finalist

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Proposal by Hops Farmers Assoc.

climatecolab.org

George Hops Farmers Association Climate Adaptation & Resilience Programme

>>> Winner

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Proposal by AFRI AGFO

climatecolab.org

African agroforestry to maintain sustainability and mitigate climate change

>>> semi finalist

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What actions do you propose?

  • Briefly described in the above summary and further developed below, the present project integrates with even more of the Climate CoLab proposals than those listed above because its originality lies in its cross-cutting nature, which makes it the most decisive and rapid means of effectively achieving the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.

In addition, the OMF/Crocus proposal articulates the SDGs harmoniously without their contradicting each other.

If implemented, this measure will have the following beneficial effects:

1) It will help to end poverty in all its forms everywhere (UN Sustainable Development Goal – SDG – #1) by providing additional income in crocus currency to anyone involved in augmenting healthy living biomass under an OMF-delivered “micro-farm cluster” (MFC) label. This will ultimately involve a very large number of small farmers and agricultural workers, as the agriculture practiced in these micro-farms should develop very rapidly worldwide.

2) It will help to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture (SDG #2) because the type of agriculture that makes farmers eligible for crocuses is extremely productive, and because the living animal and plant matter taken into account for crocus allocation is produced in accordance with ecological principles and interactions (primarily pollination), with no chemical pollution of water, air, or soil, resulting in excellent nutritional qualities.

3) It will help to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages (SDG #3) thanks to plentiful and good-quality food, and to the fact that local communities are invigorated by the use of local complementary currencies with which the crocus is articulated.

4) It will help to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all (SDG #4) as families benefit from an improved quality of life, including the education of their children (especially girls) thanks to the income provided by the crocus. In approved micro-farms, farmers and farm workers apply to the field, in a way adequate and efficient for food production, the vital principles at work in nature, which are universal and powerful, allowing the emergence, everywhere, of solutions that will be very diverse but always relevant and adapted to local conditions, including social ones. These principles include nonlinearity, diversity, concentration, integration, function stacking, redundancy, interdependence, the fencing effect, the edge effect, etc. (there are about 20 of these principles), all providing lifelong learning.

The individuals who comprise the MFCs will thus develop their skills. Moreover, they will share them widely through the Internet, as is already being done by permaculture communities, which are interconnected via the Internet all over the world. Communities of the future will use traditional knowledge as well as the latest progress in natural sciences, systems science, environmental techniques, etc.

5) It will help to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls (SDG #5), for whom the crocus will be a privileged means of access to proper financial income.

6) It will help to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all (SDG #6), because the deep and rich soils of agroecosystems in the approved MFCs will have a beneficial effect on the freshwater resource, reducing pollution, regulating the water cycle, filtering out impurities and preventing erosion.

7) It will help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all (SDG #7), since raising the populations’ standard of living—thus increasing the resources of local communities hosting MFCs, will facilitate pooling the resources needed to equip them with clean and decentralized renewable energy systems (solar, wind, biogas, geothermal energy, etc.).

8) It will promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all (SDG #8), for when farming respects ecological balances, healthy living biomass increases perpetually. Micro-farms will therefore provide more and more sustainable, quality and highly productive jobs  (in this scheme, agricultural employees are required to have trade-union rights for their employer’s micro-farm license to be renewed).

9) It will help to build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation (SDG #9), because implementing the crocus will lead to a more massive use of bio-sourced products, stimulate the circular and/or local economy, stimulate research on ecological engineering, biomimicry, and favor all systems inspired by the functioning of nature such as: urban permaculture, social and human permaculture, bio-regional and social-territorial planning, cities in transition, etc.

10) It will help to reduce inequality within and among countries (SDG #10). The resolution, through the crocus, of many current problems such as hunger, unemployment, women's hardship, etc., will mechanically promote social justice and democratic vitality in solidarity and resilience within local and national communities. It will enable the least developed countries to reduce their handicaps, and those already impacted by climate change (often the same ones) to be supported as a priority.

11) It will help to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable (SDG #11):
- either by producing the immediate effect of relieving urban congestion thanks to the creation of a considerable number of jobs outside cities;
- or by leading to the establishment of clusters of urban micro-farms wherever possible, thus contributing to the food autonomy of cities and to cooling their climate conditions through the ensuing microclimates.

12) It will help to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns (SDG #12), as the crocus will favor short distribution channels, thereby reducing the transportation of foodstuffs, packaging, and food waste. Thanks to the link between the crocus and local currencies, the agricultural, craft-based, and industrial productive fabric will be relocated as close as possible to their need.

13) It will be part of taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (SDG #13). From this point of view, the OMF is a perfect complement to, and even reinforces the diplomacy of the COPs (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; Convention against Desertification) because it will rapidly set in motion a virtuous circle.

Communities will have an interest in taking ownership of the regeneration of their agricultural environment because they will receive rapid financial contribution in the form of crocuses, which will irrigate the local economy. This "snowball" effect will ultimately enable us to sequester massive amounts of atmospheric CO2 and store carbon in living matter, with the resulting positive impact on global warming.

Furthermore, if the drive to set up innumerable MFCs is confirmed at the global level, and even more so if the crocus is extended to the living biomass of forests and reforestation, OMF action will allow decentralized, clean, and renewable energies to complete their maturation (particularly from the point of view of electricity storage techniques) and their large-scale implementation, thus putting an end to the world economy's addiction to dirty energy (fossil and nuclear).

14) It will help to conserve and use sustainably the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development (SDG #14). The crocus will act directly on the cause of sea-level rise and ocean acidification (due to the excessively high CO2 levels in the atmosphere), as well as of eutrophication, which is largely due to pollution discharges from industrial agriculture. If extended to include living forest biomass, the OMF’s role would be crucial in safeguarding sensitive coastal natural areas and ecosystems such as mangrove forests, the function of which is essential for the health of oceans but which are currently fragile and threatened.

15) It will help to protect, restore, and promote the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, to manage forests sustainably, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss (SDG #15). The crocus is indeed the ideal tool for organizing the regeneration of degraded agricultural land, rapidly and on a very large scale.

In fact, the "regenerative" model it aims to generalize is characterized by a holistic approach and a very precise definition of energy, according to which a land tenure system (natural or human) is regenerative only if it produces more than it consumes in total energy. (excluding sunshine).

Regenerative agriculture improves soil health, primarily through the practices that increase soil organic matter. This not only aids in increasing soil biota diversity and health, but increases biodiversity both above and below the soil surface, while increasing both water holding capacity and sequestering carbon at greater depths, thus drawing down climate-damaging levels of atmospheric CO2, and improving soil structure to reverse civilization-threatening human-caused soil loss.

Specific regenerative practices that have been shown to increase soil carbon levels include no-till/minimum till, cover crops, composts, multispecies plantings, biological soil enhancement, agroforestry, multi-paddock grazing, and a return of lands to grasslands/pastures or forests.

This model allows agro-ecosystems to be restored as sufficiently diversified, rich in interactions of all kinds, and perennial, because resilience spontaneously emerges from a complex and regenerative functioning. A resilient system is stable, homeostatic, and self-regulating. It is therefore able to withstand sudden changes such as disasters, droughts, floods, heat waves, fire, cold, wind, pollution, diseases, plagues and pests, conflicts, social disturbances, etc.

Since the productivity of MFCs would be much higher than that of industrial agriculture, the pressure on natural environments to feed the new billions of unborn human beings would be kept to a minimum. Such a reorientation of agriculture would be very beneficial to wildlife, as it would respect the areas that are essential to wild fauna and flora.

When we apply these principles to our agricultural systems, we will usher in a new era of abundance for all through the power, incredible diversity, and generosity of life.

16) It will help to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels (SDG #16). The positive action of the OMF will be a major contribution to restoring people's confidence in the international institutions. The universal sharing of a common value, the crocus, will materialize human-to-human cooperation and seal the alliance between our species and nature (especially if the OMF's action is extended to living forest biomass). When this latter is finally respected, we will be able to speak of a true Harmony with Nature, as advocated by the United Nations General Assembly in its eponymous resolution (Harmony With Nature, A/RES/64/196) adopted on 21 December 2009.

17) It will revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development (SDG #17) and help to strengthen the means of its implementation. The proposed new governance system, which is cross-cutting in nature since it affects all the SDGs, would be a decisive contribution to the achievement of the "The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development - Transforming our World." It would even be a very relevant indicator—since the crocus money supply is by definition quantifiable—to materialize and make tangible the common good of the Earth's inhabitants, which is healthy living biomass.


Who will take these actions and which types of actors are involved?

Stakeholders in the OMF / crocus process

To favour a paradigm shift toward regenerative agriculture, the United Nations General Assembly solemnly requests the International Monetary Fund to set up a division called the Organic Monetary Fund (OMF).

The drafting and observance of its statutes are ensured by a group of eminent personalities, the Statutory Council.

Each participating country has one vote in the OMF Decision-making Assembly (DMA).

An elected Executive Committee, in charge of managing the tasks to be accomplished and the functioning of the Fund, reports bi-annually to the DMA.

Its primary mission is to organize the Observation Network, a task force made up of world scientists who:

- draw up the specifications with which a multi-farm cluster (MFC) will have to comply in order to be awarded the OMF label;

- establish the baseline (amount of living biomass in each MFC at time t=0) in order to observe its evolution;

- produce scales indicating the weighting coefficients to be applied in terms of the geographical location of any MFC: latitude, altitude, orientation, nature of the substratum, etc.;

- publish annual figures of the healthy living biomass generated in each labelled MFC;

- make proposals to reassess the crocus endowment of MFCs in countries already heavily impacted by climate change.

Based on this data, the OMF's DMA will decide to grant a significant number of crocuses per year to the various countries participating in the scheme.

A share of the crocuses received by a country are allocated by its government to each MFC, equal to the share of the living biomass it produced the previous year.

An MFC may comprise:

- several farmers wishing to share their know-how and acquire new practices aimed at soil and biodiversity (natural and agricultural) conservation;

- a group of unemployed persons with a collective and viable project; land would be made available to them either by the central government or by a local authority under a 99-year lease;

- one or more private investors, companies, non-profit organizations, foundations, NGOs, landowners, patrons, etc. wishing to encourage the conversion of farmland impoverished by intensive monoculture; they would benefit from a favourable tax regime by supporting the establishment of one or more MFCs.

Each MFC, formed under a cooperative statute, distributes the crocuses to each of its members (farmer or agricultural worker), all of them natural persons.

Cooperative members are the only ones authorized to exchange crocuses, only for the local complementary currency (LCC) of their place of residence, which is at parity with the national currency, at 1 crocus = 1 LCC equivalent to 1 national currency unit.

The LCC collective is accredited by the state to include in its books of accounts the crocuses received, legally considered as units of the collateral account to which the LCC is attached. Crocuses are repayable as a last resort from the IMF in the relevant national currency.


Where will these actions be taken and how could they scale?

Worsening climate change requires a rapid response that engages all of the world’s countries.

The strength of the OMF-crocus scheme lies in its simplicity and ease of implementation. It doesn’t require the mobilization of substantial funds, which is why it will be of interest to most countries.

Moreover, its cross-cutting nature makes possible:

- the extension to all the cultivated lands of the planet, respecting local values;

- the commitment of all levels of society, from the small farmer in any country to the consumers we all are, to the General Assembly of the United Nations;

- the convergence of economics with scientific ecology (systemic vision);

- the simultaneous achievement of adaptation to global warming and climate change mitigation.

The solutions are actions that work. They address the causes, lessen the impacts, raise general awareness and open new opportunities to achieve the SDGs. The OMF-crocus scheme is the solution we need.

A mitigation-only strategy will not work because many changes are already underway and are now unavoidable.

An adaptation-only strategy will not work as with time, most adaptation measures will become increasingly costly and less effective, in some cases ineffective, as the magnitude of climate change escalates.

Numerous studies suggest that the regeneration of soils that have been degraded by poor practices, particularly industrial agriculture, along with the reduction of fossil fuel use, is key to combating climate change.

Climate change mitigation through soil carbon sequestration can bring co-benefits in terms of adaptation. This is particularly important in developing countries, which are vulnerable to climate change and where mitigation is not perceived as a priority.

To foster synergy between mitigation and adaptation, innovative agricultural practices are required that either have positive feedback of mitigation on adaptation or vice-versa.

Feedback of adaptation on mitigation

Innovative practices for soil fertility management lead to increased soil organic carbon and a reduction in N2O emissions resulting from less use of fertilizers.

Feedback of mitigation on adaptation

Soil carbon sequestration leads to benefits in terms of soil properties and greater resilience to climatic stress, resulting in improved livelihood for farmers.

This should be the global challenge of our century. The effort can be shared by all societies that practice agriculture. Because it shall bring, on top of everything: improvement of the quality of life, employment, harmony with Nature and among the peoples of the Earth.

The increasing support and attention permaculture and regenerative practices are getting in science, the media and education shows that it has begun to be part of the mainstream conversation.

People no longer tolerate today's globalisation but there’s a way towards globalisation that is responsible.

The following five countries have the largest population and the largest area. Instead of "France" you should read "European Union".


In addition, specify the countries where these actions will be taken.

United States


Country 2

France


Country 3

China


Country 4

Brazil


Country 5

India


Impact/Benefits:


What impact will these actions have on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?

The Farming Systems Trial conducted by the Rodale Institute Kutztown, PA (USA), showed that CO2 was sequestered into the soil at the rate of 3,596.6 kg of CO2/ha/yr

Aguilera et al. 2013: found that the organic systems sequestered 3,559.9 kg of CO2/ha/yr

When extrapolated globally, would sequester 17.5 Gt of CO2/yr

3,596.6 kg CO2/ha/yr x 4,883,697,000 ha (Total Agricultural Land*) = 17.5 Gt of CO2/yr

CO2 was sequestered into the soil at the rate of 8,220.8 kg/ha/yr in the Rodale Compost Utilization Trial.

When extrapolated globally, would sequester 40 Gt of CO2/yr

Machmuller et al. 2015: reported an increase of 29,360 kg of CO2/ha/yr in three farms converted to management intensive grazing. If these regenerative practices were implemented on the world’s grazing lands they would sequester 98.5 Gt CO2/yr

29.36 kg CO2/ha/yr x 3,356,940,000 ha (Grasslands*) = 98.5 Gt CO2/yr

* Source: FAO, 2010

(From: 4 per 1000 and Soil Carbon - Andre Leu, IFOAM and Regeneration Internationalhttp://bit.ly/2lnFFoW


What are the most innovative aspects and main strengths of this approach?

The OMF crocus scheme is at the crossroads of many conventions and is THE tool that is needed to help countries and the international community meet their fundamental commitments:

- to live in Harmony with Nature as expressed in the eponymous UN General Assembly Declaration;

- to apply the “Paris Agreement” reached by the UNFCCC COP 21 by implementing the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs);

- to enforce the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF);

- to intensify the implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity;

- to achieve the UNCCD Land Degradation Neutrality target that specifically addresses the regeneration of the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found;

- to achieve the 17 goals of Agenda 2030 (Transforming Our World: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development) which provides the world with a roadmap towards prosperity for all citizens on a regenerated Earth.


Costs/Challenges:


What are the proposal’s projected costs?

The OMF/crocus scheme is ingenious because it is designed as simply complementary to the current financial system and will not interfere with it.

Assessing the cost of such an ambitious instrument will require a preliminary study, but it can already be said that the sum is small compared to the benefits brought on Earth. It will help to solve, and “connect the dots” among the burning issues:

- climate breakdown

- ocean acidification and eutrophication

- collapsing biodiversity

- the depletion of arable land

- the scarcity of drinking water

- hunger

- unemployment

- climate-induced disasters, wars, and population displacements

- retreat into nationalism and selfishness

- hopelessness.

The OMF-crocus instrument is itself a measure of its own effectiveness, as the number of crocuses issued will be:

- a faithful reflection of the growth of healthy living agricultural biomass, thus of the gradual reorientation of agriculture;

- a real-time measure of our ability to allow Mother Nature help us draw down a significant part of the carbon released in the atmosphere as a result of our « energy-related inebriation », which has considerably increased the entropy of the Earth system and caused the climate to spin out of control;

- a good indicator of how we harmonize economy and ecology and of the increase in dynamism and wealth of local communities;

- the measure of our ability to find a better thermodynamic and ecological balance;

- a good indicator of humans’ capacity to act in harmony with Nature and all living beings, from bacteria to plants to whales, in a mutually enriching way.

The crocus currency can be traced from one end of the chain to the other and cannot give rise to corruption. It is not an energy chasm like the bitcoin cryptocurrency because it doesn’t require the use of energy-intensive blockchain technology. It is “THE” Anti-Bitcoin par excellence as it will foster enormous progress for humanity, whilst the bitcoin does no more than reflect a few individuals’ opportunism, degrades the social bond and is ultimately a parasite dangerously drifting towards the annihilation of human civilization.

From the purists' point of view, the crocus is more like an incentive than actual currency. The “currency” designation should however be used because it will make it more desirable.

The crocus allows Nature to buy money instead of being bought by money. In other words, ecological vitality, not the commodification of nature, is what generates money here.

This tool is therefore a means of giving nature added value without destroying it. It is synonymous with growth and abundance because living biomass is spontaneously inflationary. It strives towards real social and environmental sustainability.

It is a new paradigm, a ”TRUE” Green Revolution acting from the global to the local (« Think globally, act locally »). It is humanity's next great step towards peace and wisdom. Finally!


About the Authors

Hélène Nivoix, biographical elements

Born 19 January 1961, native of Besançon in France, the Franche-Comté region near Switzerland. Still lives there.

Ecologist since the age of 11 (following the Club of Rome’s warning in 1972)!

Holds a degree in natural sciences.

Civil servant currently retired for reasons of disability.

Two children. Sensitive to the future of every child in the world.

Member of « Friends of the Earth » in her youth, then member of the Green Party from its beginning in 1984 (and employed by the party for a while).

Passionate about environmental issues, particularly agriculture.

Donor to multiple movements including Greenpeace, and supporter of a number of media organizations that campaign for the ecology.

Philosophy:

- Live for the moment, with eyes wide open.

- The Internet is an open window upon the world and gives us some power, depending on what we do with it, much like when we choose what to put on our plate.

- It is important to spread ideas. A simple thought born somewhere in the galaxy, even if not voiced, can truly transform the universe. This is probably why often inventions are born almost simultaneously in different parts of the world, without the respective inventors having consulted one another. The Internet, in that it is the biggest brainstorming tool, is even more powerful.

- This is why it is so important to observe our own thoughts and emotions, especially negative ones, and find ways to improve.

- In fact, we are all connected. In addition to being all “in the same boat”, we are not separate. Besides, there is no need to worry: everything will occur at the right time.

My favourite quotes about Regeneration:

"With the right support and incentives, land dependent communities could help turn degraded land into a productive asset in as little as two years. The approach is the essence of sustainable development. It offers millions of people real opportunity. It delivers the basis for food, energy and water security. It helps build resilience in the face of climate change. It reduces carbon emissions AND sequesters carbon in the soil.

And worldwide, there are huge opportunities. There are 2 billion hectares of degraded-land worldwide with the potential for restoration. 75% of that is in working landscapes. The restoration of just 500 million hectares could store up to 30% of global carbon emissions - buying us valuable time for energy transition. And with the costs of restoration in the range of a 150 dollars a hectare, it is cost-effective. It makes policy and business sense." (1)

"Though the problems of the world are increasingly complex, the solutions remain embarrassingly simple." (2)

"You sow one grain, you harvest a hundred. What could be better than that??!" (3)

(1) Monique Barbut, Executive Secretary, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

(2) Bill Mollison (1928-2016), co-founder of permaculture with David Holmgren

(3) Claude Bourguignon, French agronomist


References

Aguilera E, Lassalettab L, Gattinger A and Gimenoe S, (2013), Managing soil carbon for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Mediterranean cropping systems: a meta-analysis, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment.

Fliessbach A, Imhof D, Brunner T & Wüthrich C, (1999). Tiefenverteilung und zeitliche Dynamik der mikrobiellen Biomasse in biologisch und konventionell bewirtschafteten Böden. Regio Basiliensis 3, 253–263.

IPCC, (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.

Koopmans CJ, Bos M M and Luske B (2010). Resilience to a changing climate: carbon stocks in two organic farming systems in Africa. Organic is Life – Knowledge for Tomorrow. Proceedings of the Third Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR). 28 September - 1. October 2011. Vol. 2 Socio-Economy, Livestock, Food Quality, Agro-Ecology and Knowledge Dissemination. Namyangju, Korea.

Lal R (2014), Global Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, Volume 22, 2003 - Issue 2, Pages 151-184 | Published online: 24 Jun 2010

LaSalle T and Hepperly P (2008). Regenerative organic farming: A solution to global warming. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, USA.

Machmuller MB, Kramer MG, Cyle TK, Hill N, Hancock D & Thompson A (2014). Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter, Nature Communications 6, Article number: 6995 doi:10.1038/ncomms7995, Received 21 June 2014 Accepted 20 March 2015 Published 30 April 2015

NOAS (2017). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (US)https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-qa/how-much-will-earth-warm-if-carbon-dioxidedoubles-pre-industrial-levels, Accessed Jan 30 2017

Paustian K, Johannes Lehmann, Stephen Ogle, David Reay, G. Philip Robertson & Pete Smith. Climate-smart soils. Nature 532, 49–57 (07 April 2016) Biogeochemistry Environmental sciences

Scharlemann J PW, Tanner EVJ, Hiederer R & Kapos V (2014). Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool, Carbon Management, 5:1, 81-91, DOI: 10.4155/cmt.13.77 Tong W, Teague W R, Park C S and Bevers S, 2015, GHG Mitigation Potential of Different Grazing

Strategies in the United States Southern Great Plains, Sustainability 2015, 7, 13500-13521;www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability

Cropland restoration as an essential component to the forest landscape restoration approach - Global effects of widescale adoption | IFPRI discussion paper - 2017 (www.ifpri.org/publication/)

Borrelli P, Robinson D A, Fleischer L R, Lugato E, Ballabio C, Alewell C, Meusburger K, Modugno S, Schütt B, Ferro V, Bagarello V, Van Oost K, Montanarella L, Panagos P. An assessment of the global impact of 21st century land use change on soil erosion. Nature Communications, 2017; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02142-7


What enabling environment would be required in order to implement this proposal?

The World is at a turning point. Top priority must be given to ensuring a stable climate and optimal functioning of the ecosystems, because these are the basis of real sustainable development. It is also time to share prosperity and peace throughout the world.

Success will hinge on implementing an additional form of world governance.

Key points are:

- a clear and convincing thrust that generates momentum among peoples the world over;

- an international organization affiliated with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and drawing on its expertise;

- a smart tool to be used worldwide, based on an interdisciplinary approach;

- an implementation strategy allowing quick action and generating tangible results at every level.

The crocus currency could be the appropriate tool.

There is an enormous number of organizations of all kinds that are likely to mobilize because there is growing concern worldwide.

Nowadays, scientists, farmers, climate justice activists, indigenous and women’s rights advocates, agroecologists, the growing regenerative agriculture movement, discussions at the grassroots level among concerned citizens who are conscious eaters and consumers, all share the desire to come together and collaborate to reverse climate change.

The positive momentum bringing them together is so intense that it offers an opportunity for international, national and local institutions, private foundations, NGOs, labour unions, associations of all kinds, non-political and non-confessional initiatives as well as religious organizations, to propel a true shift towards a new era of cooperation, which would be embodied by the OMF-crocus scheme.

This could be a major determinant in giving birth to a new paradigm and providing a smooth transition from the old world to an exciting “true green revolution” that would also regenerate the soil, our health, communities, and the planet.

To reverse global warming, there is no need to invest in expensive, potentially dangerous and unproven technologies such as carbon capture and storage or geo-engineering. All that is needed is to scale up existing ‘shovel ready’ solutions.

To implement the OMF-crocus proposal, a group of leading countries of different cultures and development levels (economies from the North and from the South, and emerging economies) could take the initiative of submitting a new resolution for discussion by the UN bodies and the IPCC and, after improvements, put it to a vote by the General Assembly.

Following the institution under the IMF of a new division dedicated to launching the crocus currency, it might be a good idea to launch a pilot phase at the level of a few islands, for instance Hawaii, Tasmania, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Madagascar and Hispaniola.