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Energy Intensity Lowering - Makes the Earth less Carbon Emission. Energy is Life Use it wisely Today power wastage Tomorrow power shortage



The first recommendation of the 11 recommendations of Integrated Energy Policy document - 2031, prepared by the 21 Energy Experts through Planning Commission, Govt. of India is "Reducing Energy requirements by Energy Efficiency and Conservation".

India spent 0.16 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms against 0.13 kgoe for Denmark for the year 2003, as perwww.iea.orgEvery year India has been spending excess energy for  Rs. 3,40,000 cr on an average, equivalent to 140 Mtoe against Denmark. If we can make all high energy intensity spending countries to bring down to on par with UK and Denmark, 20-40% carbon emission will be less and earth will be at every comfortable level to much below 400 ppm which already touched on 10th  May 2013 (US Scientist Identified in Haawii).

World  spent TPES [ Total Primary Energy Supply], 12292 Mtoe [Million ton oil euivalent] at 0.19 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms and 28,999 Mil ton CO2 in 2009 as per website. This is 42% excess energy w.r.t. Denmark at 0.11kgoe/$ GDP IN PPP terms i.e. 5163 Mtoe. Time has come to minimize excess energy spending in various countries  by adopting energy conservation and energy efficiency without sacrificing for comforts for less carbon emissions.

Energy Conservation Measures;

1) Incandescent lamps have to be replaced with CFLs and LEDs.

It is learnt that China stopped manufacturing incandescent lamps, against 400 million incandescent lamps are there in India. All countries have to speed up in replacing incandescent lamps by CFLs and LEDs. this brings less carbon emissions.

Gas  the primary energy has to be used for hot water and food preparation against secondry energy, electricity. All G-20 countries are using gas for hot water and food preparation except Saudi Arebia.

A 14.2 kg domestic gas cylinder gives 600 buckets 10 lts capacity hot water directly against 138 buckets 10 lts .capacity with electric heater. The remaining are the electricity losses in Generation, Transmission and distribution.

Category of the action

Reducing emissions from electric power sector.

What actions do you propose?

Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister, India took charge on 22nd May 2004 as Prime Minister for 1st term. Within 2 months the Prime Minister directed to study the energy requirements at 8% / 9 % growth rate for next 25 years i.e, 2031, for India.

In pursuance of the decision taken by Prime Minister and Duputy Chairman, Planning Commission to set up an Expert Committee to prepare an integrated energy policy linked with sustainable development that covers all sources of energy and addresses all aspects including energy security, access and availability, affordability and pricing, efficiency and environment, it has been decided to set up an Expert Committee to formulate Energy Policy.

21 Member Expert Committee was formed in  Aug 2004 and made the report ready by Dec 2005 with 11 recommendations. The report was made available to public in Planning Commission web site for suggestions. I attended the round table conference in New Delhi twice in 4/2006 and 5/2006, when two NGOs on Energy namely World Energy Council - India member committee, New Delhi and World Institute of Sustainable Energy Sources, Pune, with the then Member, Energy, Planning Commission. Dr. Kirit S Parikh chaired on both times.

Though the recommendation are made for India for better energy usage requirements, they are in general applicable for any country. The challenges can be met with a coherent approach which develops all available energy sources. The main areas of action for which detailed policy recommendations have been made are as follows.

1. Reducing energy requirement through efficiency and conservation.

2. Augmenting energy resources and supply.

3. Rationalization of fuel prices to mimic free markets crises that promote efficiency fuel choice and substitution.     


4. Promoting coal importing.

5. Accelerating power sector reforms

6. Cutting cost of power.

7. Encouraging renewable and local solutions.

8. Enhancing energy security.

9. Promoting and focusing energy R & D

10. Promoting household energy security , Gender equity and empowerment through targeted entitlements for the poor

11. Creating an enabling environment and regulatory oversight for competitive efficiency.

The broad policy frame work and the development thrust suggested here need to be made more specific in certain areas. Once the policy framework is accepted, it will be necessary to chack out roadmaps fo development and draft specific policy measures for implementation.

With implementation of the recommendations of the committee, India can meet her energy requirement in an efficient, cost effective way and be on a path of sustainable energy security.

India spent 0.16 kgoe (Kilo gram oil equivalent) / $ GDP in PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) against Denmark spent 0.13 kgoe for 2003 year as per website. This is equivalent to excess energy spending for Rs. 3,40,000 Cr. approximately, 140 Mtoe (Million Ton Oil Equivalent). This has been the case for the last 6 years for India and other countries also like China, U.S., South Korea, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia etc.

Though data for 2010 also is available right now fromwww.iea.orgin turn gets from World Bank and IMF, with the US Dollar value of 2005 year, but from 2003 to 2009 the data available inwww.iea.orgis with US $ value of 2000 year only.

Energy Intensity calculations for 2009.


GDP in PPP terms = 161.2 x 1000 / 5.52 i.e., 29,205$/Capita

Energy Usage = 18610/5.52 = 3371 kgoe/capita

Energy Intensity 3371/29205 = 0.1154 kgoe/capita/ $ GDP in PPP

Kgoe is taken on Primary energies (Oil, Coal, Gas) Calorific values  taken in per unit quantities.

Saving in energy intensity from 2003 to 2009 in 6 years = 0.1300-0.1154 = 0.0146 kgoe.

Saving in % = 11.23%

Saving in Oil  = (3852-3371) x 5.52 = 2655 Mil Kgoe.

= 2.655 Mil Ton Oil Equivalent.


GDP in PPP Terms 4566.96 / 1155.35 = 3953 $ / Cap.

Energy Usage = 675.83 x 1000 / 1155.35 = 855 kgoe.

Energy Intensity 585 / 3953 = 0.1480 kgoe.

Saving in Energy Intensity  = 0.16 - 0.1480 = 0.0120 kgoe.

Saving in  % 2003 to 2009 = 7.5 %.

Energy Conservation Measures :

  1. Energy Conservation measures have to be adopted for domestic and commercial category electricity consumers, which accounts for 1/3rd of the load in India. This may be the case for other countries also.
  2. Power factor improvement from 0.95 lag to 0.99 lag even to unity for all induction motors across the globe at every point of small time by adding capacitors automatically on and off.All Government organizations across the globe have to instist their electricity consumers to maintain excellent power factor. Collecting penalty for not maintaining adequate power factor is not correct procedure for several months. It is for us to educate them that their action for insering adequate capacitos make less electric bill and less carbon emissions. World leaders on Climate change have to think seriously for implementation specially from countris like Russian Federation, Saudi Arebia etc having very high enery intensities.
  3. Incandescent bulbs have to be replaced with CFLs and LEDs.  It is learnt through media that China stopped manufacturing incandescent lamps already.
  4. Reduction in transmission and distribution losses have to be brought down from 24% (4% + 20% in India), to 6% (2% +4%) like in U.S.A. This will bring less CO2 automatically. This is applicable for all other countries of high Transmission and Distribution losses.
  5. Gas has to be used for hot water and food preparation instead of secondary energy, electricity. It is learnt that in all G-20 countries gas has been permitted for using domestic purpose expect Saudi Arabia.  

A 14.2 kg domestic gas cylinder gives 600 buckets of 10 lts capacity hot water. If the same gas used for power generation only 138 buckets (10 lts. capacity) will be available on electric heaters, the remaining goes as a losses in Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electricity).

  1. Additional incentives have to be given for solar system equipment for domestic and commercial electricity utility consumers in fast developing countries like India who have less CO2. Financial assistance from World Bank, IMF, IFC, ADB have to be extended for speedy implementation of solar energy and wind energy in all countries.
  2. Washing machines have to loaded fully and once washing is over, the clothes should be dried with Sun rays. This is what US govt is adopting for the last three years. Necessery permissions were also given by different States IN US to use Sun light for drying cloths without disturbing neighbours.
  3. Food is prepared by using electricity and gas. Minimizing wastage of food account for minimizing energy and thus making less carbon emissions.
  4. Electricity usage in Government Offices, Educational Institutions have to be implemented energy conservation measues.RTI [ right to information] Act 2005 has been in operation from Oct 2005 in India. This made me to study usage of 27 govt buildings and 12 educational institutions in india. An empolyee from NTPC in Head quarters building took 48 units [kwh] monthly/ per employee against GAIL employee took 489 units [kwh] . This is 10 times more than NTPC, both are Public Under taking  Companies in india. In case of Institutions, IIT students consumed 300- 600 khw [units] monthly against 100- 140 units[ kwh] monthly. BITS, Pilani students took only 72 khw [units] monthly in 2007-2008.


All induction motors have to be operated at 0.99 to unity power factor so that less electricity losses will be made. Trigonometry ->, Electrical Engineering -> Economics -> less Carbon emission. All are inter related.



Generation, Transmission and distribution of electricity have to be optimized with IT people for minimizing less CO2.


Countries like France, US, German, Japan, South Korea, India are enjoying Nuclear Power because of less very CO2, 1% emission to that of electricity generated by coal.



 IN G-20 COUNTRIES – 2010


Mexico                     6.23$   $1407 B/ 226 B kWh

INDONESIA             6.05$   $  931 Bil /156 B kWh

U.K.                         5.66$    $  2021 Bil/357 B kWh

INDIA                        4.98$  $ 3763 Bil /755 B kWh

Korea                       2.74 $  $ 1321Bil /481 B kWh

U.S.                          3.14$   $13017 B/4143 B kWh

CHINA                      2.37$   $ 9417 B/ 3980 B kWh

World                        3.47$   $68431 B/19738 B kWh



Who will take these actions?

Key actors from Government : Central Government and all State Governments have to play their main role. The Union Government has to co-ordinate with the Heads of The State Government say in India, the Prime Minister from Prime Ministers Office has to give directions to the Chief Ministries of various States and Lt. Governor of Union Territories to follow. The Union Cabinet Secretary from Central Government has to conduct review meetings and Video Conferences with the Chief Secretaries of various State Governments monthly and querterly.

Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) : International clubs like Lions Club, Rotary Club, Red Cross Societies and National NGOs like Bharat Vikas Parished etc. have to spread the message on minimizing the wastage of the energy to save the earth. Most of the NGOs now added to make their contribution with their members to take this theme to the public for more awareness.

Business : Multinational Industries are already of the thought of minimize usage of excess energy for their products by energy efficiency and conservation. This brings automatically less carbon emissions. Walmart, US and Indian Railways, Reliance Industries, ONGC, Coal India, British Petroleum are already adopting.

Individuals : Energy Engineers, Environmental Scientists and other interested persons have already taking the lead in minimizing excess energy spending for their products / services and spreading the message for society mainly for High School Students, College student, Research Scholars and Training Institutes  throughout the World.

Media : Electronic and Print media services across the globe are to utilized for speedy implementation of the Idea.

Where will these actions be taken?

The actions are not for only European Union, China, Riode, Janeiro. These are meant for all developing countries like South Africa, fast developing countries like India and China and Developed countries like U.S etc.

For U.S and China the energy intensities are 0.19 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms and 0.18 kgoe respectively against U.K. at 0.11 kgoe. 12292 Mtoe primary energy was spent for the world in year 2009 as per website against the requirement at 58% only, if the energy intensity is reduced on par with U.K.and Denmark. Countries like Russian federation and Saudi Arabia are taking 0.42 kgoe, taking 2.82 times more energy.

Countries like Argentina, Austria, Denmark and Turkey had their energy intensities at 0.12 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms for the year 2009 as per Countries like Botswana, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Greece, Israel, Italy and united Kingdom had their energy intensities at 0.11 kgoe /$ GDP in PPP terms. Switzerland, Panama, Malta, Ireland and Cuba had 0.10 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms.

Actions are required in all countries with the assistance of Government , NGOs, Students, Multi national Industries and Media  for reducing their energy intensities for 0.10 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms for less carbon emissions across the globe.

World Bank,

How much will emissions be reduced or sequestered vs. business as usual levels?

The world is spending 42% excess energy w.r.t. Denmark and U.K. right from 2003 onwards as on date till 2010 as perwww.iea.orgwho inturn will get data from World Bank and IMF. The world spent 12292 Mtoe equivalent to 42% excess energy when we are sufficient with 58% of this taking on par with Denmark.

There has been certain improvement world wide on energy intensity, the energy taing for a product / service per US $ GDP in PPP terms.With the directions from United Nations Organization, Inter national financial institutions like World bank and IMF it is possible to bring lower energy intensity on par with United kingdom and Denmark etc in a short span of below five years, fruitful results can be very comfortably seen with less carbon emissions.

Multi national industries like Walmart, British Petrolium, Reliance Industries, Indian Railways, Defence Sectors in USA, China, Japan, India etc have to think seriously for minimizing excess usage of energy around our globe.


What are other key benefits?

Once energy conservation is followed by all countries, the products rate will come down may it be cement etc. or any item.

10 years back cement industries used to take 120 kwh (units) of electricity for 1 ton of cement manufacturing. Now it has come down to 65 kwh (units)  so this indicates world wise all countries are trying their best to use there available resources in a very wise manner. The world energy intensity in 2003 was at 0.21 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms has come down to 0.18 kgoe in 2009. This is because efforts made by all countries on better energy efficiency and conservation followed by additional renewable energy sources.

Natural resources have be useful for next generation people.

Al Gore, former US Vice President said one hour before taking Nobel Prize on 10th Dec 2007.

International Energy Agency, Paris website had been studied by Govt of India from 8/ 2004 to 12/ 2005 with 21 Energy Expert Committtee members and made as first recommendation,  reducing energy requirements

What are the proposal’s costs?

The Govenrment has to meet expenses for covering through Print media and Electronic Media till it gets cooperation from the public in following energy conservation and thus reducing carbon emissions.Non Government organizations like Lions Club, Rotary Club, Red Cross Society and Bharat Vikas Parishad  in India can have their contributions of spreading the message for less carbon emissions. World Bank, IMF, ADB,IFC and other international banking firms to extend financial assistancs for countries who come forward for speedy reduction carbon emissions.

Time line

Developed and fast developing and developing countries have to reduce the energy intensity on par with U.K. a G-20 country and Denmark a non G-20 country. If a short term is planned, by the end of 15 years most of the countries lower their energy intensities to very nearer to countries like U.K. and Denmark. Specially countries like Russian federation, Saudi Arabia have to reduce their energy intensities from 0.42 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms against U.K. and Denmark at 0.11 Kgoe and 0.12 Kgoe respectively.

World average energy intensity is 0.19 kgoe / $ GDP in PPP terms spending 12292 Mtoe [ Million Ton Oil Equivalent] on Energy for the year 2009. This is  equivalent to 42% excess usage with reference to Denmark. This gives raise to 42% more CO2 emissions.

Publicity should me made through electronic and print media on conservation of energy for G-20 countris first which account for 76% of world GDP in PPP terms. Maximum carbon emissions will come down soon in two to three years. Once the people understand the gravity of the more carbon emissions[ 400 PPM touched in last month in Hawaii].

Related proposals

Renewable technologies have to be reapidly deployed in major emerging economics. My idea also included for less carbon emissions.

My idea is reduce GHG emissions in all industries  but not limited to Cement Industry only.

Waste is to be reduced, re used and recycled automatically CO2 is reduced.


My idea is to go for ISI pumps for pumping the water for less CO2

Local Solutions:

Idea is to go for solar system for all houses to make less usage of Oil, coal, gas etc. so that less CO2 will be there,

Industrial effiency:

Minimizing Auxiliari consumption in Power plants and also industries in lighting purpose.


Mas Transportation like in Denmark is highly encourage for less CO2 instead of using one car by one person though effortability is there.

GEO Engineering.

Developed countries like US, has to give their technolocy and man power for fast developing countries like India for identification of hot air spots like in US Indonesia, and Philipine, for making less CO2.


1. Integrated Energy Policy Document, August 2006 prepared by 21 Expert Committee Member on Energy trough Planning Commission, Government of India. International Energy Agency, Paris Dept of Energy, Govt of USA Energy International Administration, Dept of Energy , Govt of USA

7.Union.Ministry of Power, Govt of India. Annual Reports.

8.Electric Energy Systems, An Introduction, Olli I. Elgerd.

9.TERI, The Energy Resources Institute, New Delhi. 

 10.World Energy Council- India Member Committee. HQ London.

11. CIGRE;  International Council on Large Electric Systems, Paris Ministry of New and Renewable Energy sources, Govt of India. New Delhi.

13.Technical Reference Book, Transmission Cortoration of Andhra Pradesh, India.

14.Technical Hand Book, APSEB Engineers Association, Hyderabad, India

15..Energy Conservation Guide Lines CBIP 1998.

16.American Physical Society. Efficient Use of Energy: A Physical Perspective. American Institute of Physics, New York; 1975.

17.Pradeep Chaturvedi. Energy, Environment and Sustainable development. Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 2003.

18.Pradeep Chaturvedi, Shalini joshi. Strategy for Energy Conservation in India, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1996.