Strategy for the Development of a Climate Change Abatement Economy by Peter S. Turay
An "Apex System" that coordinates and puts to active use the opportunities posed by climate change threats.
As UN Secretary General calls for an escalation of ambitions to provide scalable solutions to climate change threats, Sierra Leone proposes an "Apex System" that utilises her biodiversity and ecosystems services to deliver her mandates to the Paris Agreement.
Forest carbon credits otherwise known as REDD+ are the foundation of the strategy and main tool with which the climate change abatement, or low carbon, economy will be accomplished. This may require setting up a fully functional anti-deforestation task force that must vigorously work to control illegal logging and other drivers of deforestation and degradation to achieve sustainable outcomes in the management of land and biodiversity conservation. This could also include any on-going bans on timber logging and export.
Sierra Leone having reached a turning point in the management of her forest and biodiversity resources envisages a vision of transformative development that harnesses the country’s forest and other biodiversity resources in a sustainable climate change abatement manner and proposes the establishment of permanent institutional, business, legal and policy frameworks – the National Climate Change Secretariat (NCCS) or National Secretariat for Climate Change (NSCC) - for the realization of a vision to have the following: 2.5 million hectares of forest lands developed and managed, within the next 10 years, for climate change abatement activities including carbon, non-timber forest products, sustainable tree crops and ecotourism; a wide spread practice of Participatory Forest Management (PFM) in all forested districts or communities; a Forest Industries Corporation (FIC) and an Anti-deforestation Task Force of over 2000 foresters, including rangers and community forest workers; and, to generate a revenue of more than US$ 100 m per annum while sequestering a huge sum of emissions to help in addressing climate change threats.
Is this proposal for a practice or a project?
What actions do you propose?
Actions will be geared towards three major strategic goals.
Strategic Goal 1: Engage national government institutions in preparing a national institutional and legal framework for REDD+ and PES implementation by:
1. Conducting a national legal and institutional review for REDD+ initiatives.
2. Catalysing national level engagement on the implementation of REDD+ (e.g. holding a national Carbon workshop in Sierra Leone and engaging stakeholders at all levels - local, sub-national and national - of the community to raise awareness and take ownership of the initiative).
3. Conducting and completing a REDD+ readiness process with the relevant international institutions (WB, UNFCCC, UNDP, FAO, etc.) and
4. Achieving consensuses on climate change strategies among forested districts of Sierra Leone and communicating them to the national REDD+ process and international community.
Strategic Goal 2: Ensure national level institutional and legal environment is welcoming and prepared to handle nationwide REDD+ and other PES initiatives by:
1. Assessing drivers of deforestation and degradation and agreeing on response strategies (e.g. establishment of a fully functional anti-deforestation task force, forest cover mapping, carbon stocktaking and forest reference level teams, PES management team etc.).
2. Conducting and completing a fully comprehensive national forest cover and carbon mapping exercise.
3. Identifying and putting in place the requisite institutional structures for REDD+ and PES projects within the Apex System.
4. Passing legislation for REDD+ and PES at the national level.
5. Studying the non-timber forest product gaps at the national level and completing a sustainable development strategy.
6. Completing a national level ecotourism review and community based environmental development plan.
7. Outlining a viable benefit sharing mechanism, at the national level, to ensure adequate returns to rural communities, government and other stakeholders.
8. Conducting a nationwide campaign on climate Change and Carbon Credits Trading.
9. Engaging with potential buyers of generated Carbon Credits and private sector brokers.
10. Developing a financing plan.
Strategic Goal 3: Develop at least three integrated REDD+/PES pilot projects for early learning by:
1. Conducting projects at 3 to 5 pilot sites (a feasibility study has already been conducted for the Bumbuna Watershed Protection REDD+ project).
2. Identifying potential baseline and methodological approaches for each pilot site.
3. Defining boundaries for each pilot site; and
4. Reviewing and structuring the institutional arrangements at each pilot site.
What are the next critical steps for Sierra Leone?
Given UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres' call for an escalation of ambitions on climate action by September 2019 plus the latest decision of the Parties to the Convention in the Bonn Climate Conference, on 27th June 2019, for all members to deliver on their Paris Agreement mandates, the following is a list of critical steps for Sierra Leone:
1. Revision and broad endorsement of the concept proposal
2. Preparation of the REDD+ Preparedness Plan (R-PP), including application for membership of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, which Sierra Leone has not taken advantage of since 2008 when the World bank advised and invited the government to do so as a LDC.
3. Holding high level discussions with key players in Freetown, including Ministries of Environment, Lands, Housing and Country Planning, Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security, Energy and Water Resources, Finance and Economic Development, Trade and Industry, Local Government, Information and Communication, Justice (Attorney General's Office), Transport and Aviation, Tourism, Environmental Protection Agency, National Revenues Authority, National Climate Change Unit, Sierra Leone Police/Inspector General, Steering Committee on Climate Change - House of Parliament (if any), Secretary to the President or Cabinet of the government and representatives of Sierra Leone's development partners (EU, FAO, UNDP. UNIDO, World Bank, etc.).
4. Meeting with Council Chairmen and Paramount Chiefs of forested districts to develop a common position on the strategy for climate change abatement economy (according to a COP15 decision on REDD+).
5. Preparation and presentation of the relevant papers (Green, White and Cabinet) on REDD+ to the President, Cabinet and/or Parliament of Sierra Leone.
6. Engagement of nationwide stakeholders to ensure broad endorsement and buy-in of the concept.
7. Enactment of legislation for the establishment of the Apex System - National Secretariat for Climate Change, including the national registry for REDD+ and non-REDD Carbon).
- Establishment of the National Secretariat for Climate Change, or re-structuring and improvement of existing units by increasing capacity to deliver the terms of Apex System (AS).
9. Expansion of the concept into full proposal.
10. Inclusion of the Strategy to the National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) of Sierra Leone for LDCF funding.
11. Secure financial resources to begin implementation.
12. National implementation of the programme in all of the identified and agreed pilot sites.
13. Implementation of short and long-term cost-effective participatory ecosystem or forest management practices (PEMP or PFMP), including the protection of watershed areas, by the anti-deforestation task force and other PES management teams in all identified pilot sites nation-wide.
The above listed critical steps are indeed mainly linked to political decision makers and their MDAs. Therefore, a robust change theory embarking them and their interests is reqiured to show how they could be fully engaged in the implementation of the strategy. The diagram in the hyperlink is a robust analysis of the change theory involving the engagement of policy makers and MDAs in the implementation of the national REDD+ Strategy. It shows outcome mapping at the level of policy makers and MDAs in the implementation of the REDD+ strategy in Sierra Leone.
The following hyperlink provides a self-explanation of the process:
- The President of Sierra Leone has authorised the appointment of a coordinator for the REDD+ Strategy to be conducted by 6th September, 2019 according the MAF whose Minister appointed a special focal point (his technical adviser) to liaise with me recently. The MLHE was the first ministry to appoint a focal point from the Environment Department to liaise me in June 2019.
- The MLHE has added the REDD+ Strategy project to the NAPA and INDC of SL to take advantage of adaptation funding provided by UNFCCC modalities. This is to meet with the additional cost (US $ 23.6 million) posed by the establishment of the Anti-deforestation Task Force in the revised extended budget of this proposal.
- A Cabinet paper to effect the appointment of the coordinator and adoption of the proposal by the GoSL is currently being prepared by the MLHE and MAF.
- Round table meetings with the Ministers and some of the senior executives of the three leading ministries were held with Agrienviron in April and May 2019. These engagements ended in the signing of a memorandum of understanding between Agrienviron and the MLHE.
- In August 2018 a sensitization meeting was held with the Minister of the MLHE following a reconnaissance survey (by Agrienviron) of the Bumbuna Watershed catchment and the Western Area Peninsula Forest Reserves in SL.
- List of stakeholders: GoSL, includinging all MDAs; International development partners (FAO/UNREDD+, UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO, GCF, GEF, WB, EU, UNFCCC, LDCF); District Councils, Paramount Chiefs and their Regents, Forest/Land Owners, Community Forest Dwellers, CSOs, INGOs, NGOs and the People of Sierra Leone.
- Awareness of REDD+ Strategy: The GoSL and her international devlopment partners are fully aware of REDD+ albeit poor poorly implemented in Sierra Leone due to corruption. Stakeholder engagements in the form of roundtables and national workshops were conducted in 2010/2011 when I initiated the process as Technical Adviser to the MAFFS and MoEW. FAO and UNDP sponsored some of the the activities. The UNDP has since 2010 published a copy of the original CN of the sttrategy on their adaptation webpages found here: https://www.adaptation-undp.org/resources/naps-least-developed-countries-ldcs/sierra-leones-strategy-development-climate-change
- The strategy initiated by us and the NCRC Ghana on a regional approach towards the implementaion of REDD+ in West Africa (Ghana Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) has, in July 2019, yeilded a breakthrough result for Ghana with the signing of a US $ 50 million ERPA with the FCPF of the WB.
- Please see the news here: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2019/07/09/ghana-signs-landmark-deal-with-world-bank-to-cut-carbon-emissions-and-reduce-deforestation
- So yes, this project is ambitious as mentioned in the evaluation but it is also very "SMART" and Ghana's ERPA is the evidence and hope for Sierra Leone, which has a much higher forest cover and lower deorestation rate han Ghana. This proposal is not only specific, it is also manageable, achievable, realistic and time bound.
The projects of AS must propose and implement an institutional governance structure based on the creation of a community natural resource management board that would be responsible for managing the project funds and project decision-making like: approval of the “project management plan”; definition of the annual plan of activities and funds application; strategy for benefits sharing, etc. The organizational structure is community-based and involves a highly inclusive and maximum participation model.
One critical issue that the projects of the AS will have to address is how to share the carbon benefits/revenues that would be generated by the project. It is particularly important to clarify land tenure issues of the projects in regards to the traditional chiefs (who in some cases are the custodians of the land). It is critical to define the implementation strategy and the project governance prior to the project implementation, including a clear agreement with the main stakeholders. All of these issues, though apparently semantic, may significantly impact on the viability of the AS and its projects over time.
Who will take these actions?
Who will serve as Coordinator? This role will be served by a seperate and very competent authority in REDD+ matters. It will not be the National Sceretariat, which needs to be set up under the supervision of the Coordinator - who will also be the DNA or REDD+ FP unitl the NSCC is fully and functionally established.
Pursuant to decisions of the UNFCCC on the implementation of REDD+ projects in Rainforest Nations, key actors will be:
1. Leading MDAs of the government outlined above: to raise awareness and mobilize government's resources and action on the proposal; initiate and coordinate stakeholder engagements; promulgate legislation and incorporate the institutional framework of the AS, empower and provide supreme supervision through an executive committee of all allied MDAs.
3. The National Secretariat for Climate Change: will be a permanent National Secretariat in the Office of the President. It will be chaired by a suitably qualified and competent expert and will answer to the President or his designated representative and the Cabinet. She/he will also answer to the Climate Change Committee of the House of Parliament, when required to do so; and, will advice the President and his government on Climate Change related matters.
The Secretariat will be composed of a compact team that can grow over time. The Secretariat will be advised and guided by a Climate Change and `Forest and non-Forest Carbon technical working committee with the following composition:
- Sierra Leone Government agencies, including SLEPA – 5 reps; Academia and Research Institutions – 4 reps; Civil society groups – 4 reps; Community forestry groups – 2 reps; Private sector – 2 reps.
The suggested representatives of each group include:
- Government agencies: Forestry Division/Agriculture, Environment/SLEPA, Finance, Local Government, Trade and Industry, Tourism, Transport and Aviation.
- Academia and Research Institutions: University of Sierra Leone, Institutions of higher education in forested areas, SLARI, Climate Change Unit, etc.
- Civil society organizations: Relevant NGOs/INGOs, Voluntary Organizations, etc.
- Community entities represented could include: representatives (preferably PCs and/or Council Chairmen) from forested areas.
- Private sector entities should be included as they demonstrate significant engagement with the process.
Key components of the NSCC:
- Executive board;
- Technical board;
- National Registry for REDD and non-REDD Carbon;
- The Designated National Authority (DNA); and,
- Technical Unit for Climate Change, Monitoring Review and Validation (MRV), Research & Development (R&D) and consultancy. A full organisational structure of the NSCC is available for submission upon request.
Key functions of the NSCC:
- Provision of guidance, direction and regulation on Climate Change (CC) and Carbon Trading (CT) issues in Sierra Leone;
- Registration of all carbon trading projects and transactions in Sierra Leone, inter-alia.
4. Anti-deforestation task force: comprising of 2000 personnel to implement PFMP.
Where will these actions be taken?
The actions of this proposal will primarily be taken nation-wide, at all of the three stakeholder levels (local/site, sub-national/district and national) of the envisioned forest cover of 2.5 million ha to be utilised under the programme but most especially in the forested districts and watershed areas where projects will be piloted.
- Administrative and technical actions will also be taken in the headquarters of the National Secretariat for Climate Change in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Furthermore, communities at all three levels will be targeted and mobilized to increase resilience to climate change threats, including deforestation, land and/or ecosystem or biodiversity degradation in and out of the envisioned forested area of the national REDD+ programme. However, priority will be given to villages, towns and/or districts hosting pilot projects of the AS.
The country's international development partners will play a supportive role in providing appropriate and timely technical and financial support, when required, through their country directorates, diplomatic missions in Freetown and other viable agency-channels.
Government actions at the MDA and Parliamentary levels will be in the various settings of these institutions in Freetown, Sierra Leone, although devolved action could also be encountered in the forested districts.
The current GOSL has been successfully influenced by Agrienviron's recent campaign on Climate Change and Biodiversity Conservation in Sierra Leone and they are now in the process of adopting the REDD+ strategy, having realised the benefits therein. In adopting the strategy - a process that is currently on-going, the GOSL has also agreed to incorporate public feedback through participatory stakeholder engagements (workshops, awareness raising campaigns, meetindgs, etc) to develop new actions in the national straytegy. This action of the GOSL therefore signifies the adoption of the action to achieve the strategic goals enshrined in the national strategy - Emissions Reduction to abate climate change, establishment of the Apex System, payments for ecosystems services, and generation of a hugh national income in excess of US $ 100 miliion per annum.
In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.
What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?
Expected carbon benefits: The preliminary estimations indicate that the under a “business as usual” or baseline scenario approximately 440,000 hectares of the project area (2,500,00 ha) would be lost up to 2029. This deforestation would release about 52,800,000 t CO2, at an average of 4,800,000 t CO2/year.
- that the implementation of this REDD+ project could contain 80% of the baseline deforestation, and discounting a 30% insurance buffer for non-permanence and uncertainties issues, the project expects generation of about 264,000,000 tCO2 of REDD credits in a 10 years period (up to 2029). NOTE: The carbon values assumed at this preliminary stage should be improved and detailed, if it is decided to move forward to a PDD phase.
Leakage: According to the Marrakesh Accords (2001): ” leakage is defined as the net change of anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases which occurs outside the project boundary, and which is measurable and attributable to the project activity”. Thus leakage would be characterized as a verified increase in deforestation outside the project area and if this increase in deforestation (compared to an offsite project baseline) is attributable to the set of agents listed above, it is therefore essential to understand and address this source of deforestation.
The emissions predicted in this project’s baseline scenario would come from a single set of agents: deforestation expansion from the communities already living inside the project area. This region is not a settlement frontier with immigration from other regions; deforestation is largely driven by the expansion of farmland by indigenous peoples into community-owned lands. A key aim of this project is to provide alternative sustainable livelihoods to the communities; with achievements of these aims it is very unlikely farming activity would be displaced outside of community-owned lands.
Permanence: Although the project implementation strategy is still under development, it is important to stress that it is crucial to design a robust structure for forest conservation in order to ensure permanence of the project’s emission reductions on the long term.
The main risks for non-permanence could be listed as:
- Weak agreement between the government and the communities that would result in low engagement on forest conservation and consequent maintenance of high deforestation rates;
- Bad agreement with traditional landowners that would result in no engagement, or disagreement during the project implementation.
- The effective operation of the institutional arrangements will be a significant help to address the concerns of permanence, as it is an arrangement with state and local level endorsement, approvals and oversight. As such communities that proceed on this path are subjecting themselves to long-term oversight and monitoring by the state and local government authorities. It would be beneficial to get a national level incorporation of these issues in the future.
What are other key benefits?
Sierra Leone is in a strong position to develop a sustainable PES economy. Some of these strengths include:
- High degree of political will, support and leadership of the government;
- An already existing Secretariat for Climate Change that is strongly in need of reforms to meet with current challenges in the escalation of ambitions to increase resilience to climate threats;
- Significant amount of high carbon habitat: natural tropical high forest or rain forest, secondary forest, farm bush, woodlands, swamp forest, mangrove forest, abandoned tree-crop plantations and preserved and degraded forest reserves;
- High degree of biodiversity, even after the war, including internationally charismatic species dependent on critical habitat;
- Strong potential of community involvement in the forestry sector – a fertile soil for the growth of participatory forest management (PFM) and the REDD+ programme;
- Significant documented NTFP potential and simple operating systems for sustainable harvesting of certain products;
- Significant tree crop farming including cocoa, coffee and rubber farms;
- Excellent ecotourism potential and some existing tourism investments operating in the country;
- Preliminary expressions of interest and a large potential client base for purchase of future credits as developed in Sierra Leone; and,
Sierra Leone recognizes forestry as a climate change issue in her international UNFCCC negotiation process. She very strongly intervened for the inclusion of REDD/REDD+ into the Kyoto Protocol and, subsequently into, the CDM. Sierra Leone relies on her forest reserves for both mitigation and adaptation to climate change and has used this factor in support of the delivery of her mandates to the Paris Agreement. Being a low carbon emitter by 1990 standards, the country now intends to escalate her ambitions by proposing the establishment of a "nature-based approaches system" - the Apex System - that fully employs UNFCCC decisions and directives to monetize her ecosystem and significantly reduce emissions.
Economics: According to the preliminary estimates presented in the expected carbon benefits above, the project could generate an amount of 264,000,000 tCO2 of carbon credits over a 10 years period. Considering a market price of US$ 5.00 per ton of CO2 credits, the predicted total revenue would be about US$ 1,320,000,000 over the 10 years period, or approximately US$ 132,000,000 per year.
The preliminary estimates indicate that the average costs for the project implementation and maintenance, for the first 3 years, would be around US$ 1.4 million per year (2010 budget). Thus, considering the costs and revenues expected at this very preliminary stage, the project could be considered feasible and attractive if the price of carbon of $5.00 per ton can be achieved. If the price of carbon can be negotiated up to $10 per ton then the project is extremely attractive.
What are the proposal’s projected costs?
This project will be the very first non-voluntary REDD+ project in Sierra Leone and would be a pilot for the country to experiment and learn. Thus the project implementation will be integrated in the eventual national strategy and should be able to avoid issues like double accounting of emission reductions, national objections and reference levels.
The budgets (streamlined and complete), which have been reviewed as a result of changes in the funding scheme from the FCPF of the WB to the GCF and GEF, are for a five years implementation period, instead of the 3 years previously proposed, starting from September, 2019. The entire five years budget is approximately seven million eight hundred US dollars (US$ 7.8 m). The budgets have been revised not just in line with current inflation and changes in prices of goods and services but also in relation to modalities set by the funding organizations (GCF and GEF) as regards the implementation of large-scale national/international investment projects, which will also include the conduction of an ESIA.
The budget, which comprises 11 major objectives over a five years period, gives a total of US $ 7, 818, 233.60 - streamlined. A second realistic budget, which includes a salary for the anti-deforestation task force of 2000 forest rangers and funding for adaptation and robust capacity building of all MDAs, is approximately US $ 23.6 million. Both budgets have been submitted to the leading Ministries of the project, in Sierra Leone, for their review and input. The MLHE has replied with their input while the other two, MAF and MOE are yet to submit theirs.
It is recommended that government provide financial support for the initial phase of this programme while funding from other sources is being sought - given the urgent call for escalation of solutions to the climate crisis.
The following are notes on the new budgets, which have been reviewed again under current conditions:
- Stocktaking or Carbon mapping of Sierra Leone's forest cover and engagement of stakeholders represent a key function of the budget and the programme in general.
- The World Bank did carbon mapping in 2010. This exercise must be repeated again, as part of the additional feasibility study, to include provision of capacity building of national experts in Forest Referencing Levels and other related skills. This is to help Sierra Leone regain lost time and opportunities posed by the interregnum in the implementation of REDD+, and provide current data for FRELs/FRLs and proper accounting of carbon credits.
- The overall costs of the budget will be raised from a combination of grants and investment portfolios provided by GCF, GEF, LCDF, Government of Sierra Leone and Private Sector Investors.
- The MLHE has added the project to the NAPA and INDC of SL to take advantage of adaptation funding provided by UNFCCC modalities. This is to meet with the additional cost (US $ 23.6 million) posed by the establishment of the Anti-deforestation Task Force.
Note: This budget is for the establishment and day-to-day running of the Apex System (AS) only. Pilot projects to be implemented through the AS will have their individual budgets (e.g. Bumbuna Watershed Protection Project; Western Area Peninsula Forest Protection, Gola Forest Cross-Boundary project - currently running under a voluntary carbon trading scheme with no transparent Carbon Credits Accounting system and little or no substantial returns to stakeholders, including the government of Sierra Leone).
Timeline (over a 10 years period) for the proposal's impact in the short-term will be very significant both in terms of Carbon sequestration and revenue generation. This will increase even more, in the medium to long-term, provided the practice of the AS and projects launched through it are hinged on UNFCCC directives and supported by the requisite ecosystems and/or forestry particatory management practices. The governance of the projetcs in the AS must also improve simultaneously as the impact increases, especially in terms of benefit sharing matters, which may affect relationship between stakeholders and hinder the progress of the entire AS.
Figure 1: Project Timeline
2019 - 2021
Development of national strategy, action plans, policies and measures; Additional feasibility study to ascertain major indicators; Institutional framework implementation; Stakeholder engagements, including government, donor/international development partners, forest community leaders and inhabitants, NGOs, INGOs and CSOs, Businesses, Gender and Safeguarding roundtables to discuss and attract interests and options; Carbon mapping/Stock taking; Carbon and biodiversity enhancement; Capacity building, development and technical assessment of FRELs/FRLs, MRV of emissions reductions achieved for RBP and other training. Engagement of REDD+ funding organizations (GEF, GCF, Private and Public Sector Investors) using prescribed modalities, tools and programmes.
2021 - 2023
Concept testing of the national strategy, action plans, policies, including National Carbon policy, and measures plus further capacity building, technology practice, development and transfer
2023 - 2024
Concept proving, including some or all of the above listed activities plus MRV of emissions reductions achieved by REDD+ activities.
Propagation of achievements; MRV of RBP REDD+ activities.
Signing of ERPA: Self sustaining RBP REDD+ activities leading to sale/purchase of emissions or carbon credits derived from fully MRV-ed RBAs.
Figure 2: Diagrammatic Timeline
About the author(s)
Peter Saidu Turay is currently the executive director of the Agrienviron Group Ltd - a group of multidisciplinary consulting and sustainable development-oriented business units, registered in England, and offering services in agriculture, agri-business, climate change/climate policy, energy, environment, ecotourism, food security and forestry-related sectors.
He was SEDF/UNDP sponsored technical adviser to the government of Sierra Leone - in the ministries of agriculture, forestry and food security; energy and water resources (2009 to 2010; 2010 to 2012, respectively). He was Sierra Leone's REDD+ Focal Point and Negotiator in the UNFCCC - 2009 to 2012. He was also member of the African Group of Negotiators (AGN) in the UNFCCC. During this period he worked very closely with the Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) in shaping REDD+ Policy in the UNFCCC process and was offered the role of Honorary Advisor to the Coalition for Rainforest Nations in August 2012.
AGN - African Group of Negotiators
AS - Apex System
CC - Climate change
CfRN - Coalition for Rainforest Nations
CDM - Clean Development Mechanism
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
CSO - Civil Scociety Organization
CT - Carbon Trading
DNA or NDA- Designated National Authority or Nationally Designated Authority
ERPA - Emissions Reduction Payment Agreement
ESIA - Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
FCPF - Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
FP - Focal Point
GEF - Global environment fund
GCF - Green Climate Fund
GoSL - Government of Sierra Leone
FRELs - Forest reference emissions levels
FRLs - Forest reference levels
INDC - Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
INGO - International Non-Governmental Organization
LDC - Least Developed Country
LCDF - Least Developed Countreis Fund
MAF - Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
MDAs - Ministries, Departments and Agencies
MLHE - Ministry of Lands, Housing and the Environment
MoE - Ministry of Energy
MRV - Monitoring, Reporting and Verification
MRV-ed - Monitored, Reported and Verified
NAPA - National Plan of Action
NGO - Non-Governmental Organization
NTFP - Non-Timber Forest Product
NSCC - National secretariat for climate change
PES - Payment for ecosystem services
PFM - Participatory Forest Management
PFMP - Participatory Forest Management Practice
REDD+ - Reduced emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and forest conservation, participatory management and carbon stock enhancement activities.
RBAs - Results Based Actions
RBP - Results Based Payment
SEDF - Soros Economic Development Fund
SL - Sierra Leone
SLARI - Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute
SLEPA - Sierra Leone Environment Protection Agency
tCO2 - Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide
UNFCCC - United Nations Framework for Climate Change Convention
UNDP - United Nation Development Programme
UNIDO - United nations Idustrial development Organization
UNREDD+ - United Nations REDD+
FAO, 2007. Deforestation rates for West African region
Malhi Yervinder, Turay Peter S., Mason John and Barrie Abdulai, (2010). Bumbuna Watershed Protection Project: Feasibility Study PIN Document.
MAFFS, 2010. Inventory of Forestry Division of the Ministry of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security, Sierra Leone Government.