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Agricultural producers in the central high plateau of Bolivia sow according to the type of soil, preventing risk indexes



With climate change, the weather danger is increasing and given the increase in vulnerability, the risk condition reaches critical levels more frequently. Establishing how much is or low risk requires quantifying hazards and vulnerability. Through the construction of quantitative risk scenarios, decision-makers will be able to prioritize the necessary adaptation actions to prepare themselves for a climate different from the current one. The process of diagnosis and identification of sectors offers a perspective on how to prevent negative impacts through adaptation and prevention thus becomes a work policy in various sectors and regions, trying to prioritize it over the response and recovery of the disaster. Preventive risk management will translate into people's safety and better conditions for development. As a result, zoning of agricultural, environmental aptitude in several stages, starting with a unit of general analysis to take it to smaller units, in order to facilitate the process of planning and coordination of the activities of the sectors, Generation of a risk index in a communitarian participatory way as a methodology that generates information about the territory, climate and risks to establish the ways to use its territorial spaces in a sustainable way, conserving the environment and adaptation in such a way as to guarantee for generations Future socioeconomic and cultural sustainability in the municipalities of Huayllamarca, San pedro de Totora and Turco in the department of Oruro

What actions do you propose?

Action 1: Inventories of land use types

With the ZAE methodology, we will estimate the land suitability and potential productivity for specific uses, considering three main groups of activities:

Inventory of types of land uses and their ecological requirements

Definition and mapping of agro-ecological zones based on inventories of land resources including climate, relief and soils

Assessment of the suitability of land for each agro-ecological zone.

Step 1.1. Selection of land use types

A number of Land Use Types (LUTs) are selected to reflect the current land uses and those for the new situation being projected. All subsequent potential proficiency and productivity assessments to be developed as part of the SSA study will address such specific types of SUT as possible uses of agro-ecological zones or cells.

The next steps correspond to the inventory of their requirements in relation to the climatic conditions of soil and relief, necessary for the crops considered and the management systems. These inventories form the basis of a sequential estimation of climatic and edaphic abilities and the calculation of potential yield.

Step 1.2. Compilation of climate adaptability inventories to crops

Climatic inventory in relation to crop development will include variables related to the phenological requirements of crops, thermal ranges and photosynthetic characteristics. Factors such as the duration of the growing period of the crop are considered, which are mainly due to the different adaptation of the varieties to different ranges of thermal conditions.

Step 1.3. Compilation of inventories of edaphic adaptability to crops

The agricultural achievement of the climatic potential of crops depends on the properties of the soil and how it is handled. Limitations imposed by the relief or other factors of the territorial area. Many soils are the result of climatic action and as a consequence, climate and soil usually present relations with joint effects on crop production. This close interrelation between climate, soil, and natural plant communities helps to some extent assess the suitability of land.

Soil requirements: Internal properties, temperature regime, humidity regime, aeration rate, natural fertility regime, useful depth, texture and stoniness, toxicity and other specific properties. External properties: slope topography, presence and intensity of floods, accessibility and trafficability. From the basic soil requirements of crops, optimal and marginal ranges of conditions are defined. These ranges are subsequently used for comparison with soil characteristics in the determination of edaphic fitness for cultivation

Action 2. Compilation of inventories of land resources

Step 2.1. Analysis of the duration of the growth period

Step 2.2. Definition of thermal zones

Step 2.3. Compilation of inventories of climate resources


• Graphical representation of the data stations of temperature, average and dominant types of the DPC, on a map

• Trace of thermal zones boundaries of DPC zones and isolines of average and dominant DPC values.

In addition to normal extrapolation techniques, Landsat images, climate maps, vegetation maps, land use maps, topographic maps and soil maps are frequently used to facilitate the delineation of boundaries and isolines. If a GIS is used, the inventory maps would be digitized. From the necessary baseline maps, the point data and the knowledge about the interpolation of climatic variables between such points will produce climatic maps in the GIS environment.

Step 2.4. Compilation of inventories of soil resources

Information on soil and relief types is usually obtained from maps of existing soils as well as from their legends and memories. Soil maps nationwide, scales 1,100,000 or smaller, are excellent sources from which to obtain the basic data. For more detailed levels of investigation, provincial soil maps are usually sufficient, and additional data may need to be developed. In order to facilitate the correlation between soils, it is preferable to use the FAO-Unesco World Soil Classification system (FAO, 1974; 1990a), although national classification systems can also be used as the basic characteristics for Assessment are included in the definitions of soil types.

Soil data required

Set 1: Maps

* Topographic / geological / terrain maps

* Floor / physiographic maps + legend + report

Set 2: For each soil / physiographic unit

* Composition of the cartographic unit in function of dominant soil, association of soils and inclusions

* Percentage of presence of each associated soil within the cartographic unit

* Useful depth and useful water capacity, quantity and quality of organic matter, CEC-clay, base saturation, structural stability, stoniness and rockiness, for each soil unit group identified in the project area

* Extension of the area of ​​each cartographic unit

* Class of dominant slope

* Root zone texture class for each associated soil

Step 2.5. Compilation of current land use inventories

The current use of land and its vegetation cover is particularly important when ZAE results are applied for planning the use of the land. Therefore, the land use classes and their cover will be systematically recorded during the resource inventory and considered as attributes of the ACS. However, this inventory is completely different from the inventory of land use types (Action 1), which defines the potential use of land and establishes a list of land use assessment requirements.

Step 2.6. Compilation of inventories of land resources

Elaborating an inventory of lands is the result of overlapping thermal zones, DPC zones and inventories of soil resources. Additional information on administrative boundaries, land use and other aspects. Systematization in GIS for the treatment of the volume of information.

Action 3. Land suitability assessment

Step 3.1. Adaptation of crops to thermal zones

In the process of adaptation is the comparison of the temperature requirements of individual crops with identified thermal zones in the inventory of climatic resources. This step essentially represents a screen that excludes crops that are not suitable for specific temperature regimes.

Step 3.2. Adaptation of crops to areas of growth period

The following are considered:

3.2.1 calculation of net biomass and crop yield free of zonal limitations DPC

3.2.2 inventory of agro-climatic constraints for each CPD area, by crop and by level of input

3.2.3 application of agro-climatic constraints to yields free from constraints to determine agro-climatically the potential yields of crops per CPD

3.2.4 calculating how potential yields of crops are affected by

Annual variability of moisture conditions

3.2.5 classification of the agro-climatic suitability of each dominant total average of the

Growth period (inventoried) for each crop, according to possible yields

Agro-climatic by thermal zones and by zone of model of period of growth.

Step 3.3. Classification of agro-climatic suitability

Classification of agro-climatic suitability derived from the relation of agro-climatic yields to the maximum potential yield determined by the availability of radiation and temperature

Step 3.4. Comparison of crop requirements to soil conditions

The evaluation of a unit of soil expressed in ranges based on the difference between soil properties and crop requirements, under a specific level of inputs. Considering five basic classes for each crop and input level

Step 3.5 Modification of fitness classes based on texture, phase and slope constraints

The limitations imposed by the texture and phase of a soil will be evaluated based on local experience or expert knowledge. The appropriate standards will be written in a report for additional limitations of particular textures and phases.

Action 4. Results of assessment of crop development aptitude classes on different land units

From the obtained results the following is developed:

Advanced application 1: Potential land productivity

Step 4.1. Formulation of crop pattern options

Step 4.2. Formulation of crop rotations

Step 4.3. Impact of soil erosion on productivity

Advanced application 2. Estimation of the potential of dry land

Advanced application 3. Spatial distribution of resources. Optimization of land uses

Action 5. Determination of risk index

Step 5.1 Characterization of vulnerable zones

Step 5.2 Determination of vulnerability map

Step 5.3 Determination of the socio-natural disaster risk index

Step 5.4 Determination of agricultural vulnerability

Step 5.5 Climate Risk Mapping

Step 5.6 Spatial distribution of socio-natural disaster risk

Action 6. Strengthening local capacities in risk management

Step 6.1 Mapping of actors associated with climate change

Step 6.2.Determination of ancestral knowledge of climate change

Step 6.3. Social construction and disaster risk decision making

Step 6.4. Determining the Disaster Management Cycle

Step 6.5. Identification of early warning systems

Who will take these actions?

Ministry of Environment and Water: regulatory body.

Instituto Geográfico Militar: Production and generation of cartography in all scales and applications.

Municipal Governments of Turco, Huayllamarca and San Pedro de Totora: Proportion of data, historical maps, support and follow-up to the process.

Foundation for the Development of Andean Multidisciplinary Services (FUDESEM): implement and develop this proposal.

Families of the three municipalities: as direct beneficiaries of the project.

Primary Authorities: monitoring, monitoring and follow-up

Where will these actions be taken?

These actions have been implemented in other developing countries such as Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica and others, providing a mitigation response to the effects caused by climate change, which can be replicated in the region that proposes to carry out the proposal Located in the territory of Jach'a Carangas in the western part of the Bolivian Altiplano (Oruro), considering the implementation in the following municipalities:

Municipality of Huayllamarca, with a population of 5,502 that is between the coordinates 17 ° 46 'and 18 ° 09' south latitude and between 67 ° 13 'and 67 ° 41' west longitude, limits the North with the department of La Paz, in the west with the province of San Pedro de Totora, in the South by the province of Carangas, in the Southeast with the province of Saucarí and in the Northeast with the province of Cercado.

Municipality of San Pedro de Totora, with a population of 5,531 is between the coordinates 17 ° 48'00 "South latitude 68 ° 10'00" West longitude limits to the North with the Department of La Paz to the West with the province Sajama to the east With the province Norcarangas to the South with the Province of the Carangas.

Municipality of Turco, with population of 5,207 is between the coordinates 18 ° 02 '58 "and 18 ° 37'47' 'of South latitude, 68 ° 03' 25" and 69 ° 04'26 " North with the Municipality of Curahuara de Carangas and the province San Pedro de Totora, to the South with the provinces Litoral and Sabaya, to the West with the Republic of Chile and to the East with the province Carangas

What are other key benefits?

- The indigenous families of the three Municipalities, carry out a sustainable management in the use of their lands for the agricultural tasks, preserving the environment for the future generations

- The indigenous families of the three Municipalities, take early warning actions and make rational use of natural resources

- The indigenous families of the three municipalities, organized, motivate and transmit their experiences in the region

What are the proposal’s costs?

Personnel / Personnel Expenses - Value at US $ 32,200

Supplies - Value in US $ 30000

Equipment / Furniture - Value in US $ 25000

Travel - Value in US $ 5000

Contracted Services / Consultants - Value in US $ 10000

Costs of direct activities - Amount in US $ 25000

Office costs / Admin - Amount in US $ 9000

Monitoring and Tracking 7000

Audit - Value in US $ 7000

Total project cost at US $ 150200

Time line

Las familias indígenas después de las acciones propuestas están en un período de adaptación y asumen los riesgos del cambio climático, llevan a cabo sus actividades productivas de acuerdo con la idoneidad de sus suelos y el índice de riesgo, se coordinan con el Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y centros meteorológicos para transferir información sobre el clima de una manera oportuna para apoyar la toma de decisiones de los productores, el desarrollo de alianzas estratégicas con organismos nacionales e internacionales de expertos para el intercambio de experiencias en la mejora de la gestión, se incorporan en acción temprana sectorial y regional sobre el cambio climático .

Related proposals

Agro-ecological Zoning


Service of Resources, Management and Conservation of Soils Directorate of Land Development and Waters, FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Proposal for a Management Model for Agro-climatic Risk




Pilot Project on Early Warning Systems (SAT) for Hydrometeorological Hazards in Costa Rica




Ÿ  During the last two decades, FAO has successfully developed and used the methodology on Agro-ecological Zoning (AEZ), facilitating the necessary software package to assist Member Countries in finding suitable solutions to different natural resource assessment problems As a basis for sustainable agriculture, at the regional, national and sub-national levels. These problems of land use have been related to other aspects of the development of such areas, such as the production and self-sufficiency of food. Needs of exploitation of certain crops, limitations of soil fertility, erosion risks, land degradation, etc.


Ÿ  Agro Agroecological zoning based on a territorial planning plan in the Pacific community, Tixán parish, Alausí canton, Chimborazo province.


Ÿ  Mapping of risks, processes, public policies and actors associated with climate change in Nicaragua


Ÿ  Risk management and adaptation plan for climate change in the agricultural sector, 2012-2021 (PLANGRACC-A)


Ÿ  Support for the Design and Implementation of an Agroclimatic Risk Management Model UTF / CHI / 028


Ÿ  Proposal for an agroclimatic risk management model International Center for the Investigation of the Child Phenomenon Climate Risk Management and Risk Mapping


Methodological Guide for the Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Change National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change (INECC) United Nations Development Program (UNDP)