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Sustainable Solutions to improving access to clean energy, safe drinking water & adequate food while reducing GHG emissions in communities



Management practices on farms matter (whether big or small)

Organic Rehabilitation, Maintenance & Conservation Farm. (O.R.M.C.F) is a community project based on the sound principles of conserving natural resources, limiting the carbon footprint, growing and eating locally grown and prepared foods, and making the world a better and sustainable place to live in.

In order to accomplish this, the proposal aims to promote:

  • Adapting to climate Change by using climate information.
  • Rehabilitation. Involves returning land in a given area to its natural state after devastating effects of climate change by improving the soil conditions and adding new flora.
  • Maintain & Conserve. This involves protection, preservation and management of the natural resources such as forests, soil, and water.
  • Sustain. This involves sustainably managing the project with regards to its policies, assets or organizations, with consideration of the economic, social and environmental impact of the project, its result and its effect, for now and future generations.
  • And promoting sustainable land and natural resources management. High population density has resulted in continuous cultivation, resulting in biodiversity loss and widespread land degradation, most notably soil nutrient depletion and erosion. Inadequate crop and livestock husbandry have compounded the problems. Land-use regulations need to be strengthened and enforced, particularly in ecologically threatened areas. Moreover, physical infrastructure could be enhanced, thus increasing resilience of vulnerable people living in extreme poverty. It is also important to rehabilitate degraded natural capital and ecosystem services, on which subsistence smallholders depend, to promote sustainable land-use and restoration of natural capital and to narrow, and ultimately close, gaps in inequalities


We can implement and share these practices/technologies globally to reduce our environmental footprint while meeting the nutritional needs of a growing population.

What actions do you propose?

Organic Rehabilitation, Maintenance & Conservation Farm. (O.R.M.C.F) offers best practices that provide an integrated course of action and approach that address vulnerabilities brought about by climate change, promotes sustainable land management both in the short-term and longer-term climate change

 It promotes proactive, demand driven interventions to achieve positive outcomes for communities and societies in reduction of GHG’s and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, water resources, environment, energy and ultimately food security.

The physical and social actions to be taken are divided into the following modules:

Who will take these actions?

The proposal is hinged on coordination efforts by a number of public, private and civil society organizations. Thus actions to be taken here vary across the different key actors involved, as shown below

Governmental Bodies

Business Organizations

Civil Society

Individual citizens and consumers

It’s the little things citizens do that will make the difference. My little thing is planting fruit trees and herbs. And it is the “little things” that each one of us do, every day, that amount to big things and, ultimately, positive change.

Where will these actions be taken?

These actions to be taken will have the most impact in developing countries. Especially the Arid and Semi-arid lands (ASALs) regions

The proposal seeks to be implemented and scaled up in such Hot Spots where climate change effects have adversely affected the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers within the agricultural sector.

World Map of ASALs Regions

The accelerated increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere presents a fundamental challenge to the well-being of all countries, with potential of being the harshest on countries already suffering from water and food scarcity                                                                                                       

This proposal provides an overview of enabling mechanisms that make adaptation possible, helping contribute to improved and diversified livelihoods as well as facilitating the integration of adaptation to climate change into policies related to disaster management and sustainable development of arid and semi-arid lands.

In Kenya, The arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya are home to 10 million Kenyans, 70% of whom live under the poverty line. The areas are subject to frequent droughts, which have been intensified by climate change.

These areas are characterized by:-

  1. Unsustainable Agricultural Practices. Fertilizer is used extensively, the land is replanted to soon its fertility declines, loss of soil humus is experienced which leads to poorer soils. If the crops are irrigated without good management practices, the soil becomes too salty, and crops can no longer be grown.
  2. Overgrazing. This removes grass cover and vegetation, causes soil compaction, and leads to high rates of wind and water erosion.
  3. Deforestation. Forests are cut or burned to make way for crops
  4. Poor policies. The above problems are as a result of poor planning, laws, and regulations by governments. Laws, economic policy, land rights, and the wisdom of government officials are all inter-related.

How much will emissions be reduced or sequestered vs. business as usual levels?

Sources of Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)5

The figures below are based on the assumption that the project proposal is on 5 acres thus having a balance between the number of livestock kept and the acreage of land that has been planted trees. The calculations represent 2 years of the proposals implementation within which the following will be monitored :

  • A balance or decrease in the number of cattle / livestock in general
  • No use of Nitrate fertilizer
  • Decrease in use of fossil fuel
  • Continuous no-till crop production & adding high amounts of biomass to the soil
  • Conserve soil and water, improve soil structure, and enhance soil fauna activity.



What are other key benefits?

1. Sequesters GHG’s

Trees absorb CO2, removing and storing the carbon while releasing the oxygen back into the air.

2. Save the Environment.

Conventional farming methods erode soil and use dangerous pesticides that may take centuries before they're gone.

3. Creation of New Ecosystem services.

Humankind benefits in a multitude of ways from ecosystems. Eg Pollination by a bee, is a type of ecosystem service.


1. Creates employment & reduces inequality.

It promotes gender equality in planning and implementation of community development initiatives and micro-projects.

Case Example : UN report roots for inclusion of women & youth

2. Food Security & Waste Management

Integrating crop and livestock systems increase the efficiency and environmental sustainability of both production methods as, the waste of one is a resource for the other.

3. Promotes Agritourism.

Case Example : Agritourists light up orchard and bring in cash.

What are the proposal’s costs?

The proposal can be financed mainly through cash flow and equity. Though this means the project will have to grow more slowly than we might like. Total approximations come to about $ 101,000 for the project to be implemented on a 5 acre piece of land.

Important Assumptions

  • We assume a strong economy, without major recession.
  • Interest Rates will remain the same.
  • The loan interest rate is based on the Central Bank of Kenya Lending Rate
  • Assumptions for balance sheet presentations are conservative and based on reasonable expectations of asset acquisitions in the coming five years.
  • Another key assumption is that enough consumers want your product or service that you can generate adequate sales to make a profit for the long run.
  • The following variable expenses are tied to volumes and will increase the same amount as revenue:  salaries, fuel charges, postage, repairs and maintenance and supplies


 Start-Up Costs

The following chart summarizes start-up expenses:

Personnel Plan

The staff will consist of the farm manger working full time.

In addition the farm will have hired an assistant and apprentice within the community and also hire a part-time security guard. 

The assistant and apprentice will primarily be responsible for the raising of the field greens and tending to the livestock

Time line

Project Timeline - (5-15 years)

  1. Sourcing of funds
  2. Identification of local service providers
  3. Communicate Proposal to stakeholders.
  4. Negotiations with state entities
  5. Setting up of pilot project.

Project Timeline - (15-50 years)

  1. Management and monitoring of test/demonstration plots
  2. Awareness and Sensitization of people living in Arid and Semi-arid lands (ASALs) regions
  3. Environmental and Social Impact Assessments
  4. Scale Up & Replication.  Here is whereby the proposals geographic scale is expanded.

Project Timeline - (50-100 years)

  1. Measurement and Monitoring - Field measurements of forest growth and carbon stocks are undertaken on a periodic basis and are based upon well-established forest inventory and scientific principles.
  2. Verification - Independent agencies will then ensure that the projects are being implemented successfully.  They will measure carbon storage for every project on a periodic basis for expected carbon sequestration performance goals. After this they will then verify all calculations and methods used to determine the carbon benefits of the project. 
  3. Permanence - Is the life of the project .The most desirable forest carbon projects are those where the restored and protected forests remain intact indefinitely. This will help reduce climate change as the trees are planted / restored and protected. It wouldn’t help much if a tree were planted or saved one year only to be cut the next.


Related proposals

Bamboo for Land Use

This proposal has outlined the benefits of Bamboo. My research was based on the advantages of certain trees in sequestering carbon and bamboo was one of the trees I researched on.

Generation of Biogas energy from animal waste for use in rural areas

The proposal focuses on clean energy from livestock waste.

GHG Rescue; Buying Waste from Households and selling it to Recycle Companies

The proposal has also focused on the importance of recycling organic matter


Scientific Papers.

The Yale Environment Review

Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Grantham Institute for Climate Change - Solar power for CO2 mitigation


Chemical Fertilizers Adding to Greenhouse Gases, Scientists by Case Adams, Naturopath ·

Farmers’ overuse of nitrogenous additives may explain puzzling emissions By Beth Mole

Carbon and Emissions: Livestock

Credit Check: A Comparative Evaluation of Tree-Planting and Fossil -Fuel Emission Reduction Offsets - A David Suzuki Foundation Technical Paper 

Edible insects - Food and Agriculture Organization

Policy Studies.

Water Efficiency Saves Energy

Climate Change Connection

Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

The role of livestock in climate change

Water’s Links to Energy and Greenhouse Gases

Soil scientist Timothy Griffis of the University of Minnesota in St. Paul.

Nature Geoscience, uses nitrogen isotope data to identify the unmistakable fingerprint of fertilizer use in archived air samples from Antarctica and Tasmania.

TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH LIVESTOCK- A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities

Urban Forestry Network

UN Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) 2009 report on the world's forests

Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

APRIL 2013 The Brookings Institution 1775 Massachusetts Ave., NW Washington, DC 20036

Alliance for Rural Electrification (2011).

Ondraczek, J. (2013) “The sun rises in the east (of Africa)

World Bank (2010) “Addressing the Electricity Access Gap,” Background Paper for the World Bank Group En­ergy Sector Strategy.

Journalists’ Reports.

Bees, butterflies face extinction, threatening Kenya food production

El Niño and La Niña - Turn Disaster Into An Opportunity

Jobless youth giving up on finding jobs

Organic Farming Cheap, healthy way to minting cash - May 17, 2014

Solar Power In Unlikely Parts - February 22, 2014

Worm Manure Turns Arid Land Into Crops Paradise

Soil Health Key To Successful Farming

Fertilizer Trees Enrich Degraded Soils.

Ornamental and Exotic Birds

Bees - The Key To Better Crop Yields

TOF August 2013 - Stingless Bees

Solar Energy Transforming Rural Lives -

Generating Electricity From Agriculture Waste.

Scientist Makes Fuel From Crop Waste.

UN report roots for inclusion of women & youth

Agritourists light up orchard and bring in cash.

County thrills forum with law to harvest water

Other Sources.

Synthesis of Climate Change Policy in Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of U.S. Government

Africa Soil Health Consortium


Carbon offset project types

Climate Change: Carbon Offset Program


Conservation Practices that Save: Crop Residue Management

Institute of the Environment, The University of Arizona

Climate Change Associations & Organizations

Bugs are on the menu in the Democratic Republic of Congo