Usage of piezoelectric materials to generate electricity without causing pollution to environment.
Now a days the non conventional resources are used to produce electricity and there would be emission of green house gases a output,there gases leads to global warming.The World Meteorological Organization’s annual Greenhouse Gas report shows that between 1990 and 2012 there was a 32% increase in radiative forcing ,the warming effect on our climate because of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping long-lived gases such as methane and nitrous oxide.The gases are produced mostly by these power plants and vehicle's exhaust. Electricity is a significant source of energy in the world and is used to power homes, business, and industry. The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the largest single source of CO2 emissions in the world, accounting for about 37% of total world's CO2 emissions and 31% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2013. The type of fossil fuel used to generate electricity will emit different amounts of CO2. To produce a given amount of electricity, burning coal will produce more CO2 than oil or natural gas.There are some conventional energy which wont produce any green house gases such as solar energy,wind energy,etc.,Like this,some other methods should be developed.One among them is piezoelectricity.Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure. This method of production of electricity is non-polluting and easily obtainable from various sources.
Which proposals are included in your plan and how do they fit together?
Piezoelectric material needs only a strain to produce electricity.This strain should be obtained naturally or manually without any external power.Piezoelectric material needs 0.1N force to produce current.And it can be stored and used as per need.And this piezoelectric material can be used in many ways to produce electricity.Some sources from which piezoelectricity can be obtained are mentioned below.
- ROADS: It can be installed on the surface of roads where there is frequent vehicle movement. As a vehicle moves on the road in which the piezoelectric materials are embedded, the piezoelectric material experiences some strain and produces electricity. This electricity can be stored in batteries and can be used as per our requirement.
For one kilometer road of 100 meter width,100 piezoelectric materials are placed in 1 meter gap in width of the road and same arrangement is followed in every 100 meters of the road.So,the plan needs 1000 piezoelectric material for one kilometer.Each piezoelectric material produce 20 volts of current for single impression.On total the setup can produce 20 kilovolts.By using 1 kilo ohm resistance connecting wire,it can produce 20 amps current and at last it can produce 400 kilowatts power by implementing this plan.
- DAMS: Piezoelectric materials can be installed in the water outlet of a dam. As water strikes the material at a high velocity, strain is obtained on the piezoelectric material, and electricity can be obtained. This electricity is in addition to the hydroelectricity produced in a dam.
For a 500 meter long dam,the piezoelectric materials are kept can the outlet.500 piezoelectric materials are arranged in a row and there are three rows.On total it needs 1500 piezoelectric material and each produce 20 volts,by using resistive connecting wires it can produce power up to 900 kilo watts and it would a extra power supply with the hyroelectric power.
- BUILDINGS: Piezoelectric materials can be installed in floors of buildings. As we walk or move something on the floor, strain energy can be obtained, which produces electricity. This electricity can be used for household purposes.
In buildings,the power the derived the impressions on piezoelectric material due to stepping on steps of stairs.Each step would have 60 cm length and 25 cm width,here 50 piezoelectric materials are used for single step if there is 20 steps,total number of piezoelectric material used is 100.voltage produced is 20 kilovolts,by using resistive connecting wires it can produce power up to 200 kilowatts and it is used for powering the electrical appliances.And it can be used in induction stove instead of using gas stove which would produce green house gases.
- TREES: Piezoelectric materials can be fixed between branches of 2 different trees. As wind blows, the branches move, and this produces strain energy on the material. This produces electricity. This electricity produced can be used for powering street lamps.
In this plan,two trees are connected with piezoelectric material.If there are 300 trees in one kilometer,it needs 300 piezoelectric material.On total it produce 6 kilo volts voltage and it can produce power upto 40 kilowatt power and it can be used to light the street lamps.
- OCEAN:Piezoelectric materials are fixed between two wooden blocks.Due to waves and buoyancy the wooden blocks moves ahead to each other due to this there would be some strain energy produced at the piezoelectric material and this produce electricity and this connected to ocean bed through the connecting wires from the ocean bed the power is sent to shore with the help of insulated pipes.
This method is similar to that of using piezoelectric materials in roads.And same structure of arrangement of piezoelectric materials is used.And it also produce 400 kilowatts power and it can be used by the people at the sea shore.
Piezoelectric materials can also be used in various other areas for production of electricity without causing pollution.Many other methods are possible to electricity with piezoelectric materials.
Explanation of the emissions scenario calculated in the Impact tab
What are the plan’s key benefits?
- The amount of electricity produced using piezoelectric materials is fairly high, and it can serve as an alternative to conventional electricity sources such as thermal power plants or nuclear power plants.
A normal 20 mm piezoelectric material cost 0.03-5 USD, depending on the response time.
A 20 mm thumb size piezoelectric material can produce up to 20 volts.This gives a good idea of how much electricity can be produced in the above cases.
A high power is obtained without degrading the environment and without emitting green house gases.
This method should be implemented in vast area and use of it should be developed and it should be used wisely.
Cost for implementing this method is lower than that of other conventional resources.And future research should be done in this method of electricity generation.
What are the plan’s costs?
This method is better than other conventional electricity production.A 20mm piezoelectric material costs upto 5USD.For an 1km road of 100m width,100 piezoelectric materials are placed in 1m gap along the width and this arrangement is placed for every 100m.So,it needs 1000 piezoelectric materials for 1km and it costs 5000USD.And connecting wires,battery and maintenance would costs upto 1000USD.Total cost for implementing this method in roads would cost 6000USD per km.If the frequent vehicle movement is for 10kms in a city,it would cost 60000USD for implementing.Same arrangement is followed in ocean for power generation using piezoelectric material over wooden blocks.In building stairs it needs 50 piezoelectric material and for 20 steps it needs 1000.Total cost would be 6000USD for a buliding(it includes connecting wires,battery and maintenance).For dams of 500m length it needs 500 Piezoelectric materials on 3 rows and it needs wires and storage battery. On total it costs 8000USD.
What are the key challenges to enacting this plan?
- The average time response of a 20 mm piezoelectric material is 75 to 100 hrs. It has to be improved to at least one month.
Cost of installation is high.
Frequent replacement of piezoelectric materials due to less time response.
It can be implemented as per the requirement of the user. It is a matter of labor and costs.
time taken for implementation as follows
- For roads,it takes 3 years for implementation.First the method should applied in a city after achieving the required result further it can be implemented in major cities.
- For dams,it takes 2 years for implementation.After 2 years,this method would be practices in all dams
- For buildings,it takes time as per the requirements or number of stairs.
- For ocean,it would take 1 year for construction of pipes and after that it takes 5 years for implementation.
- For trees,time required depends on number of trees in the road where the method to be implemented.
Further developments should be taken and this method should be implemented in wide areas.
- Ali R. Hadjesfandiari, Size-dependent piezoelectricity, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 50, Issue 18, 15 August 2013, Pages 2781-2791, ISSN 0020-7683, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.04.020.