BIODIVERSITY, WILD ANIMAL TRAFFICKING AND IMPACT ON CLIMATE
Mario Cobucci Neto
Mar 7, 2015
BIODIVERSITY 1-DESCRIBE When current climate talks, I imagine a disaster, information on global warming. But in the history of evolution, biodiversity can over thousands of years to adapt as the climate, a possible regulator of adaptability. The territorial space on earth is immense and with that life tends to evolve and continue adapting to climate variations such as the formation of heat islands by disasters and major catastrophes. Biodiversity (gr. bios, or life; lat diversitas) present on Earth is distributed in a land area of 149 million km2, and a marine environment surface of 361 million km2 (DAJOZ, 2005). The relationship between climate and biodiversity is very narrow, there thresholds that are critical to enable the development and adaptability and various external and internal factors. In this case study, I point out an internal factor is the trafficking of animals as a negative factor, which influences the climate, because the decline in biodiversity to keep the balance in the forest. Along with the "Gaia planet", the wildlife is going through an evolution (DARWIN, 2004). In the long run, the evolution of the biosphere is given by external allogeneic forces such as climate change and geological, and autogenic processes – resulting from the internal activities of agencies of the ecosystem (ODUM, 1988). However, due to global events relating to deforestation, urban growth and lack of vegetation in urban centers, there is how to interpret that the great challenge of the moment is to combat climate change is involving great responsibility, or even a citizen or small farmer who must change their behaviour and lessen the impact. Climate change in the form of global warming caused by man is perhaps the most serious threat to the survival of the species in the last 10,000 years. Worldwide, fickle weather caused the plants and animals had to change their distribution, habits or habitats, or die. Extinctions due to climate change caused by man are increasing. Global warming has affected the survival of forms often unsuspected (THE BIODIVERSITY GROUP, 2015). The weather is a factor that influences the growth of agriculture, this increasing wealth in countries. Can generate large disasters and damage causing harm to animals. The diversity increases with time there is a balance of diversity, in which species are removed from the system to be added to opposed (RICKLEFS, 2003). It is very interesting to understand that problems are often valued for their economic impact. In a conservation vision, to protect the environment where the species survive, it has to somehow assign economic values to ensure its preservation. But there is a line of thought, where these figures are not comparable, and life on earth depends on rational beings that conserve natural resources by themselves. Thus, the animal species may have a value as a commodity or a moral value. But the value of biodiversity is the sum of all that exists, the cumulative of all the produced wealth of all countries (NORTON, 1997). 1.1-Animal trafficking history and information I believe that the relationship between climate change and biodiversity has a very challenging. However the animal trafficking has to be discussed so strong, their impacts are numerous and its causes several. I have in this study a reverse connection, where the animal trafficking collaborates with climate change; specifically in a factor in the increase of heat islands. To understand the essence of animal trafficking come to insert some subjects. According to RENCTAS (2007), illegal wildlife trade is the third largest illegal trade in the world, after drugs and weapons. Moves about 20 billion dollars a year in Brazil 10% of this market. Of Brazilian ecosystems are removed about 38 million people of wildlife species per year, and trafficking in animals the second leading cause of reduced faunal abundance, following the decline of habitats. But there is a portal that records 475 million run over wildlife in Brazil each year (CBEE, 2015). This is a very scary given the difference in the number of animals sold illegally and get hit. Among other references there is a relevant difference in animal numbers trafficked. In Brazil are removed approximately 20 million animals of their habitats by year (WWFBrasil, 2000). In this case it is possible to relate the number of species taken from nature, where there is a breach of the so interrelationships and there is a commitment in the forest balance. Therefore maximizing the increase in heat islands, increasing temperature and decreasing the local humidity. It's a little confusing when I try to show that an illicit activity contributes to a climate impact. But it is very clear to understand that this link exists and has the scale, measured, planned over a global responsibility in maintaining environmental health. However, it is extremely impressive look at the data and understand that thousands of species of animals are removed from Brazil, imagine the world. Where it is estimated that 90% of the animals illegally marketed die, since the withdrawal of habitats, to their final destination (RENCTAS, 2007). Thousands of individuals are drawn from cruel, abused, mutilated and often parts are sold. In Brazil the data I obtained in study times showed that birds, mammals and reptiles were the most trafficked and seized. But there is no way to take biological and commercial importance of amphibians, fish and invertebrates. The traffic because it is illegal tends not to have rules, however there are laws prohibiting this trade that has no much effect. But there are two interesting hypotheses, where this trade may have another course and go into decline and end. The first confirming the hypothesis of trafficking impacting the climate decreasing environmental services. And the second, where the animals can transmit zoonoses. In a professional conservationist vision with respect to animals, could consider the trade as a whole impacting the climate since each species the most withdrawn or not being in the middle, loses the moment of interaction and collaboration to the overall balance. Unfortunately there are many animals that are internationally traded and end stop at visitation centers and legal creations. Common are also animals that attract visitors in zoos, as gazelles, zebras and rhinos, ending up in fenced game farms. To quote a historical fact, which shows the true sensitivity and the will to do good to animals, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), artist in the Italian Renaissance, could not bear the sight of birds in captivity; he bought birds, removed from the cages and then freed (REGAN, 2006). And nothing more symbolic than to think that with a lot of fight in the future animals may be free in their habitats. Unfortunately there are legal measures that put people in situations of compliance with his rights to animals and market it. This is not the subject of discussion, since my position as conservation professional is respect animals in their habitats. So to attract attention and arguments have to explain the impacts that animal trafficking cause for then I could stipulate actions and proposals to this end. According to RENCTAS (2007), the impacts of animal trafficking can be: - Sanitary: zoonoses transmission as anger, yellow fever, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and other toxoplasmosis - Ecological: in biological controls, in seed dispersal, the predator prey balance is broken, interfering with ecological interrelationships -Economic: humble people are recruited to commit this crime, working clandestinely and the amount of the illegal practice does not reach the public coffers of the country, much less to them. Considering the social, environmental liabilities generated and irreversible consequences of this illegal practice, it is concluded that the country and the world pay dearly for this crime. However I will highlight the health impact, since this is not mentioned in a strategic way in the media, there is no preparation of society to reduce this impact and government agencies tend to have greater responsibility for the safety of the population. Communicable diseases were cited in (BRANCO, 2008). Will be commented by numbers: 1-diseases, 2-main sources and 3-way transmission: *1 – Diseases: Ameba Entamoeba histolytica, 2 – Main sources: Mammals and 3 – Way transmission: Ingestion of contaminated food and water with cysts. *1 – Diseases: Clamidiose Chlamydophyla psittaci, 2 – Main sources: Parrots Columbiformes, 3 – Way transmission: Aerosol inhalation in contaminated environments or the gastrointestinal tract. *1 – Diseases: Echinococcosis-hydatidosis complex Equinococcus granulosus, 2- Main sources: Foxes and deer, 3- Way transmission: Ingestion of viscera contaminated with hydatid cysts. *1- Diseases: Chagas Disease Trypanossoma cruzi, 2- More than 200 species of mammals, particularly the opossum (Didelphis SP.), 3- Way transmission: Contact with the feces of biological vectors (Hemiptera) mainly of the genus Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Rhodnius containing trypomastigotes. *1- Diseases: Spotted Fever Rickettsia rickettsii, 2- Main sources: Capybaras (main suspect reservoir), 3- Way transmission: Through tick bites, possibly of the genus Amblyomma spp. *1- Diseases: Giardiasis Giardia intestinalis, 2- Main sources: Carnivores, 3- Way transmission: Ingestion of contaminated food and water with cysts. *1- Diseases: Cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania braziliensis, 2- Main sources: Rodents, sloth, anteater, canines and equines, 3- Way transmission: biological vectors sandflies Lutzomyia spp. (mosquito straw). *1- Diseases: Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans, 2- Main sources: Rodents and carnivores, 3- Way transmission: Contact mucous membranes or skin with water, fomites or food contaminated with animal urine (sources of infection). *1- Diseases: Anger, Lyssavirus 2- Main sources: Carnivorous and bats, 3- Way transmission: Bite of rabid animals. *1- Diseases: Salmonellosis Salmonella spp. 2- Main sources: Reptiles, birds and mammals, 3- Way transmission: Ingestion of viable salmonella. *1- Diseases: Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii, 2- Main sources: Felidae and endothermic animals, 3- Way transmission: Ingestion of oocysts in contaminated water and food esporulados carnivorism (tissue-bradyzoites cysts) transplacental. *1- Diseases: Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Micobacterium bovis, 2- Main sources: Herbivores, carnivores and primates, 3- Way transmission: Through inhalation of spores into the environment, mainly closed. But a major flaw in the system of animal trafficking is that there is no sanitary control and this can lead to various diseases, which infected people need treatment, take risks, the cost of health to countries increase and is not computed these expenses with this crime. This could be another great reason for this illegal practice is priority for environmental security of countries and in the world. Create a relationship between training heat islands and animal trade is not as favorable due to existing bibliographies. But the impact on cities by heat islands are easy to understand. The phenomenon of heat islands is more seen in urban environments because, as shows the different patterns of reflectivity, are highly dependent on the materials used in construction. It is observed depending on the reflectivity, more radiation is absorbed and more heat will be issued by the surface. These different patterns heat emission end entail a higher temperature in the center and as it moves away from this towards the suburbs temperatures tend to decrease (BAPTISTA, 2014). However the heat islands in the cities grow, due to materials used in the construction along the emissions of pollutants. With that biodiversity is affected as the high temperature can eliminate animals in those places or open doors to other occupy these places. Possibly I can analyze that if animals are no longer in those locations, biodiversity is in decline, the interactions between animals and plants are reduced and so there is less stability in maintaining the flora. For example, with less moisture and evapotranspiration are warmer environment with more heat islands. But the withdrawal of animals is carried out for trade or hunting, can determine which animal trafficking operates in a profound way in the growth of heat islands, contributing to climate change. 2-ACTIONS To perform some actions and support the work would be needed 1- Collect data on animal species seized and victimized animals (run over, electrocuted) with government agencies at the federal, state and municipal level. And get data on climate, such as the formation of heat islands and interpolate the data. 2- It is necessary to understand the physical structure and the ability to support responsible agencies that control screening centers, rehabilitation and management of animals. 3- To act in a decentralized way in schools and university disseminating materials, lectures and insert a regional basis the importance of combating wildlife trafficking. 4- Search and bring improvements to the post offices and transport in order to detect and deter the illegal transport of animals. 5- Moves the field planned in places vulnerability in this trade and observe relationships with heat islands. 6- Environmental education there are companies that do not use conservation practices that take natural areas, where it is common employee behavior to obtain animals for company and want to be contradictory in sustainability indices. 7- Show through the georeferencing, places of seizure with fragmentation of habitats due to urban growth, construction of roads and local roads. 8- Intervene in indigenous areas with practices to combat animal trafficking. 3-PROPOSAL: Main proposal georeference in the country or continent the formation of heat islands with data from animal seizures. Need to get data from agencies that monitor the climate specifically heat islands and data separately with the agencies responsible for wildlife seizures. Encourage people involved, the importance of the fauna in the realization of environmental services and equate on economic values to combat this crime. Create a criminal forensic centre in any specific region for combating wild animal trafficking. BIBLIOGRAPHIES BAPTISTA, GUSTAVO M.M.; et al. Análise do Fenômeno de ilhas de calor urbanas, por meio da combinação de dados LANDSAT E IKONOS. Universidade Católica de Brasília UCB e Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP. Anais XI SBSR, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 05 - 10 abril 2003. Disponível em: < file:///C:/Users/Mario%20Cobucci%20Neto/Downloads/14_005%20(2).pdf >. Acesso em: 3 mar 2015. BRANCO, Angela Maria. Políticas públicas e serviços públicos de gestão e manejo da fauna silvestre nativa resgatada: estudo de caso: Prefeitura da cidade de São Paulo. 2008. 160 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Saúde Pública) – Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2008. DAJOZ, Roger. Princípios de ecologia. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2005. DARWIN, Charles. A origem das espécies e a seleção natural. São Paulo: Madras, 2004. (CBEE) CENTRO BRASILEIRO DE ESTUDOS DE ECOLOGIA NAS ESTRADAS. Disponível em: < http://cbee.ufla.br/portal/atropelometro/ >. Acesso em 5 mar. 2015. NORTON, Bryan. Mercadoria, comodidade e moralidade: os limites da quantificação na avaliação da biodiversidade. In: WILSON, E. O. (Org.). Biodiversidade. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1997. p. 253-260. ODUM, Eugene P. Ecologia. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 1988. THE BIODIVERSITY GROUP. Focusing on life overlooked, Climate change. Disponível em: < http://www.biodiversitygroup.org/topics/climate_change.html >. Acesso em : 20 fev. 2015. REDE DE COMBATE AO TRÁFICO DE ANIMAIS SILVESTRE (RENCTAS). Vida silvestre: o estreito limiar entre preservação e destruição. Diagnóstico do tráfico de animais silvestres na Mata Atlântica: Corredores Central e Serra do Mar. Coordenação e organização de Angela Maria Branco. Brasília, 2007. Disponível em: < http://www.renctas.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/livro-renctas-final.pdf >. Acesso em: 20 fev. 2015. REGAN, Tom. Jaulas vazias: encarando o desafio dos direitos dos animais. Porto Alegre, RS: Lugano, 2006 RICKLEFS, Robert E. A economia da natureza. 5. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2003 WORLD WILDLIFE FUND DO BRASIL (WWF Brasil). Tráfico de animais silvestres no Brasil: um diagnóstico preliminar. Brasília, 2000.
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