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Smart Transportation for smart people– Use of Intelligent Transportation System to reduce Green House Gases.


Description

Summary

India have experienced tremendous increase in number of registered vehicles from about 0.3 million in 1951 to about 210 million in 2015.Increasing number of vehicles on road increase the emission from it and the GHG increases.

Ahmedabad city, India is one of India’s largest and fastest growing city with a population of 7.3 million, with 18.72 million vehicles registered till 2015.The urban areas is not capable enough to tackle this upsurge of vehicular growth and have resulted into higher traffic congestion levels on the roads. A typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.7 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. In 2012 a study by Urban Emissions, a research organization, evaluated air quality on PM10 in Ahmedabad are: 30% road dust and 20% vehicle exhaust and others 50%. The implementation of better system which will work in reducing the various aspects of GHG reduction i.e., Intelligent transportation System. ITS is manly the combination of computers, communication and sensing devices in transport system.

ITS is to perform travel in

  • Intelligent
  • Trouble-free
  • Seamless, safe and secure manner

To reduce this pollution level, it is also necessary to cut the usage of personal vehicle by an individual. To provide public transportation is the best mode for lowering the effect of GHGs. Increasing the public transportation is not only the solution but we need to get it smarter.

So, Smart Public Transportation System should be adopted to reduce the effect of GHGs. Here we need to integrate Bus Rapid Transit System and Metrorail which are nowadays the necessity for every urban city. Smart Transportation also means use of smart materials for its construction. We can adopt:

  • Segregated waste plastic in flexible roads
  • Use of geogrid in base surface of pavement
  • Use of zeolite concrete bed in rigid pavement


Is this proposal for a practice or a project?

Not sure


What actions do you propose?

Ahmedabad city has a huge population as discussed earlier. The vehicles travelling in Ahmedabad every day is in large quantities.

 


Average vehicle volume at different road types, on weekdays in different cities

 

 

Average daily kilometres travelled by different categories of vehicles

Table for: Emission inventory of road transport sector in Ahmedabad city

 

Pollutants

(tonnes/day)

Emission

CO

128.8

HC

74.9

NOX

75.8

CO2

10361.7

PM

7.7

SO2

0.3

N2O

0.3

CH4

10.4

NH3

0.8

Benzene (g/day)

1353.6


The vehicle emission rate is high and to reduce it is huge problem. A new system is required to reduce these emissions. Intelligent transportation system can be used.

Intelligent Transportation System services are related to the needs of user of transport system. According to ISO (1997) ITS user services are prescribes in following table.

User Service Category

User Service

Advanced traffic management System(ATMS)

Transportation planning support

Traffic control

Incident management

Infrastructure maintenance management

Advanced Traveller Information System(ATIS)

Pre-trip information

Route guidance and navigation

Personal information system

Advanced Vehicle Control System(AVCS)

Vision enhancement

Safety readiness

Pre-crash restraint development

Commercial Vehicle Operation(CVO)

Commercial vehicle administrative process

Commercial vehicle fleet process

Advanced Public Transport System(APTS)

Public transport management

Demand responsive transport management

Shared transport management

Emergency management System(EMS)

Emergency vehicle management

Electronic Payment(EP)

Electronic financial transactions

Safety

Public travel security

 

The main reason for high emission of GHG in transportation is due to versed traffic management. Advanced Traffic Management System(ATMS) service deals with the issue related to road network based traffic management. The addition of ITS in-traffic management system makes the effectiveness of manual system manifold times. It helps in optimizing the use of road capacity by different modes and users. Also, it helps in reducing journey time. The efficient use of traffic signals at intersection reduces queue length at traffic signal. This helps in reducing the cost, fuel consumption and air pollution. The early or immediate detection of incidence on the network provides great help in reducing traffic congestion on network. If the incidence is detected at later stage, than whole network may face several hours of congestion. The ATMS also helps in managing traffic demand on various corridor. If by any chance a corridor faces congestion or any problem, then an efficient ATMS directs or guides the other road user to change their route of journey. The traffic rules violation should be reduced as far as possible. This system has an impact on mobility of users.

            Every transport/city planner wishes that most of the road user would use public transport in place of private mode of transport on the interest of city and nation in the light of pollution, congestion and nation’s fuel bill. So, an ITS tool with a traveler information system, convert it into Advanced Traveler Information System(ATIS). ATIS can help a traveler to plan his/her journey economical and comfortable manner using the pre-trip information. If parking information system is online (due to ITS), then definitely it has impact on private vehicles users. The efficient parking system can save congestion and valuable time. If private vehicle user comes to know that there is no parking lot available at the place of his/her visit, then he will definitely opt public vehicles.

ITS tool increase the efficiency, ticket sale and clientage manifold times. The passenger terminal information system at terminals, bus station and on board has importance in all modes. To increase the use of public vehicles, it should get rid of low frequency, long delays and overcrowdings. Integration of BRTS and Metrorail should be done. This can be done by proper planning of it. The Metro route should be designed in such a manner that its terminal is present at every important location and from there BRTS system should be available for going in internal roads to reach destination. A person can access to a nearest Bus stop in 100-200 m of its working or home area.

The public vehicles (i.e., BRTS and Metro) needs to be made smarter. The entire network can be brought on the mobile platform through an application. This navigation app can give clear information about all the interchanges required on the route enabling the traveler plan better. A GPS device installed in all buses to track the bus movement in real time to inform commuters about the waiting time to next bus. A smartcard system will be created with GPS system incorporated in it, so that a person need not go to a ticket window to buy a ticket and stand there in queue. The GPS with a RFID reader in smartcard will help to get the entry and exit point of a commuter traveling by any public mode. The fare can be auto debited from the smartcard. As an add-on feature, there can be a facility to recharge the card through mobile wallet linked to navigation app.

Last mile connectivity can be improved by introducing a feeder bus system. This means that smaller buses can run to and from a main bus station/metro station and smaller station on secondary route on higher frequency. This will attract commuters who do not take buses because of poor coverage of sectors which are off the main bus routes.

Buses and metro can offer value added services such as Wi-Fi hotspot, drop boxes for utility bills, light snacks, water dispensers. They can have tablets fixed on every seat providing access to news, shows, games and music which will make the journey pleasant. Payments of these services can be done by same smartcard providing a seamless travel experience.

            Along with use of ITS it is necessary to get some material which will help in reducing the emission of GHGs. Materials such as

  • segregated waste plastic in flexible roads
  • Use of geogrid in base surface of pavement
  • Use of zeolite concrete bed in rigid pavement

Segregated waste plastic if used will help to reduce the plastic waste. Since the plastic waste are dumped rather use in road construction will help a lot. This also increases the strength of road pavement. The construction, maintenance cost of it is also low. The life of roads also increases. So we can save money and having potholes free roads will help to increase the mobility of passengers.


Who will take these actions?

These actions will be taken by the centre or state government of India. They can adopt the Public Private Partnership to accomplish the action in most effective manner.

 


Where will these actions be taken?

India being a very populated country with daily migration of people to urban areas in search of job, education, better standard of living. So these places are bound to be congested on roads. Any urban city having huge population and a very high traffic congestion can adopt these actions to get more comfortable, safe and efficient transportation system.

Seeing the present scenarios of India, many cities like Ahmedabad, Pune, Nagpur, Surat, Mumbai, Delhi, Jaipur and many more can effectively adopt the methods.


In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.

India


Country 2

No country selected


Country 3

No country selected


Country 4

No country selected


Country 5

No country selected


Impact/Benefits


What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?

The use of these actions will significantly reduce the GHG emissions.

System

Year

Length(km)

Number of Passengers

(lakh)

Pass-km

(lakh)

Pass-km/km

(lakh)

Average lead

(km)

Metro

2025

94.67

11.30

105.02

1.11

9.29

2035

25.90

263.77

2.79

10.19

 

So such a large number of mass will be using metro system so it will reduce the private vehicle and will help to reduce the GHG emission.


What are other key benefits?


Costs/Challenges


What are the proposal’s projected costs?


Timeline


About the author(s)

Harshil Mutha- Persuing Masters in Infrastructure Engineering and Managment

Narendra Paliwal-Persuing Masters in Infrastructure Engineering and Managment

Deep Arya-Persuing Masters in Infrastructure Engineering and Managment

Neha Chauhan-Persuing Masters in Infrastructure Engineering and Managment

Dr. Anurag kandya - HOD of Enviornmental engineering PDPU

Darshan Dave- Persuing Masters in Enviornmental Engineering


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References