Optimizing the type and the size of the aerosol material based on the atmospheric conditions and temperature
One promising method of protecting and preserving of water resources is through the enhancement of rainfall rate in warm regions as a response towards climate change. Man-mad precipitation formation (cloud seeding) is a science-based technology which focuses on adding special particles to a cloud to boost rainfall. The concept of hydroscopic seeding approach lays in forming rainfall as a result from accelerating collision-coalescence physical mechanism through adding the appropriate size of ice nucleate material. However, the effectiveness of the process depends on the selecting of the material and its appropriate size that will be seeded into the cloud. Based on previous work, the mean radii size for seeding material is between 0.5 and 6 mm which is the optimum range to get a maximum seeding affect (Caro et al., 2002). However as such, for regions like UAE there is more to consider other than this. For example, a study shows that rain perception can be enhanced during clear atmosphere compared to turbid atmosphere. Therefore, the condition of the atmosphere will affect the effectiveness of seeding process. Considering this, UAE region is affected by high levels of areole distribution. Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the global radiation budget and indirectly act as an ice nuclei where the cloud properties are modified. However, only a small proportion of aerosol particles can serve as Ice nuclei (Murray et al., 2012). Additionally, the nucleation potential effect varies depending on each the properties of each type as well as the atmospheric conditions. Therefore, there is a need to understand and study the ice nucleating efficiency of different aerosol materials (size distribution and concentration) at different temperatures and atmospheric conditions regionally in UAE. The objective is to optimize the indirect effect of aerosol particles which act as seeding material based on the temperature and atmospheric condition.
Category of the action
Mitigation/Adaptation, Changing public attitudes about climate change
What actions do you propose?
The proposed idea requires an assessment of different particles materials and an extensive review of previously used materials and experiment:
1- Understand and collect the presence of different aerosol particles and categorize them based on their characteristics (such as their size distribution (diameter) and concentration).
2- Based on this data, simulation modeling is used to study their affect in different atmospheric conditions temperature.
Who will take these actions?
A collaborative work is encouraged between Governmental entities and educational institutions. Government entities will support the project by providing accessible database and materials, whereas educational institutions will support the project by doing the analytical and laboratory work.
Where will these actions be taken?
The proposed idea focuses on enhancing rain in United Arab Emirates. However, the approach is applicable for different countries as long as there is an availability of their own data.
What are other key benefits?
- Contributing to the area of research of cloud seeding technology as well as material field.
- Improving the efficiency of the cloud seeding technology
- Reducing the affects of aerosol distribution in the region .
What are the proposal’s costs?
At this level, it is difficult to estimate the cost of the proposal as it depends on the cost of data collection method provided by the government.
Cooper, W. A., Bruintjes, R. T., & Mather, G. K. (1997). Calculations pertaining to hygroscopic seeding with flares. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36(11), 1449-1469.?
Caro, D., Wobrock, W., & Flossmann, A. I. (2002). A numerical study on the impact of hygroscopic seeding on the development of cloud particle spectra. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 41(3), 333-350.
Reisin, T., Tzivion, S., & Levin, Z. (1996). Seeding convective clouds with ice nuclei or hygroscopic particles: A numerical study using a model with detailed microphysics. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 35(9), 1416-1434.?
Murray, B. J., O'sullivan, D., Atkinson, J. D., & Webb, M. E. (2012). Ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets. Chemical Society Reviews, 41(19), 6519-6554.?