Experiment the rain making bacteria to test the natures ability to make clouds with bacterium by cultivating it in a specific location
Pseudomonas syringae is a bacteria that plays a crucial role in the formation of all forms of precipitation. But it found that this bacteria has a detrimental impact on crops causing frost damage due to its high ability to suck the water. As the host plants are disappeared or protected with pesticides reduced habitat for rain-making bacteria such as P. syringae could be a result of the occurrence of the rain more extreme on polarized locations. Cultivating this bacteria in a certain location it essentially needs to find its good side in constructive nature of this rain-making bacterium. Also, doing simulation to study the spraying P. syringae to the cloud and comparing it with the previous method of seeding in term of cost effective, environmental friendly, long term impact and the amount to rain increasing
Category of the action
Mitigation/Adaptation, Changing public attitudes about climate change
What actions do you propose?
In UAE, the salt was used for cloud seeding which is later might increase the salinity of a ground water and soil. Studying the bacterium and experimenting it as an alternative method might increase the efficiency of cloud seeding process and play a role in rebalancing the environment . Recent discoveries show that “rain-making bacteria” are more efficient at forming ice nuclei than inert particles such as dust and salts, due to their larger size and surface area. Picking a specific location on the windward side of dry lands to cultivate the bacterium, allow it to multiply on its favorite plants and measure what happens when a good wind kicks up and then look for when and where it rains in nearby will increase the nature’s ability to make clouds with bacterium that our farmers despise. By using satellites and meteorologist would be able to predict when and approximately where precipitation would fall. In addition, doing the simulation or real experiment of direct seeding of clouds by spraying the rain making bacteria using aircraft plane and compare the results with the traditional methods, will be beneficial in creating database to end up with optimum result. Even if P. syringae cause frost injures of plants, resulting in devastating economic effects on agricultural crop yields. Still it’s possible to protect plants by including antifreeze gene’s into its genome so that it produces antifreeze proteins and making themselves less vulnerable against ice plus bacteria and allowing P.syringae to continue its role in making rain. Recently, Dr. Lindow continued his experiments with P. syringae, subsequently discovering a mutant bacterium he called "ice-minus" strain, that he then duplicated himself via GMO experimentation. When tested on several different crops, the mutant strain worked to prevent plants from frosting even during cold weather. This is good news for factory farms. So it’s always necessary to use the nature’s gift to make rain and helping farmers out of it.
In human point of view, snow contains large quantities of Pseudomonas syringae, till now there is no solid evidence of a how this bacteria affects human health. The health hazards for humans of Pseudomonas syringae were studied on the basis of an assumption of infectious, toxicity and allergenic capacity. The scientific literature does not report any infectious capacity of P. syringae for humans. Also, it was considered that P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity for humans. While data supplied by manufacturers and identified studies were deemed to be insufficient to conclude that there is any health hazard linked to endotoxins, considering that in their normal environment humans are regularly exposed to P. syringae endotoxins. The scientific documentation relating to the human allergenic capacity of P. syringae was very limited. Considering that humans are currently exposed in their normal environment to P. syringae, and that repeated contact with high doses of antigens causes tolerance rather than hypersensitivity. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded.
"Spread of P. syringae:
Pseudomonas syringae can be moved by wind, rain, insects, infested budwood, and transportation of infested nursery stock. Mechanical equipment and pruning tools may be a frequently overlooked means of dispersal or of generating aerosols containing the bacteria. Harvesting alfalfa fields greatly increased the number of INA bacteria captured on petri plates of agar in nearby citrus groves. Pseudomonas syringae has also been recovered from the air above and next to bean fields."
Who will take these actions?
Government and private sectors. In addition to science institution to do more researches in this sector. Also it’s required to have a specialist people in meteorology, biology, gene engineering and other scientist
Where will these actions be taken?
its will be in United Arab Emirates. the specific location will be chosen based on the nature of the land and the weather which its need a deeper study. Also,the main condition of the location to implement this project that it’s should be in the windward side of dry lands.
What are other key benefits?
- Using the nature method in cloud seeding ( bio- precipitation ) instead of using salts and silver iodide
- It will help the environment to rebalanced and increase the ability of the nature in making clouds
- Continued experimentation is crucial to increase our understanding of the role P. syringae plays within the hydrologic cycle, and to find out how we can enhance, rather than destroy, its ability to create rain where it's needed
What are the proposal’s costs?
The main cost will be required in this project to provide a suitable land and crops to cultivate this bacteria in a certain. Also, in doing experiment to increase the multiplication of this bacterium and other studies.
short term (5-15 years)
J. Hardy, “The Rain-Making Bacteria.” available in http://www.hardydiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Ice-Forming-Bacteria.pdf at ( June 5, 9:32 am)
M. Prasanth, N. Ramesh, K. M. Gothandam, K. Sivamangala, and T. Shanthini, “Pseudomonas Syringae?: An Overview and its future as a ‘ Rain Making Bacteria ,’” vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 70–77, 2015
A. Gail (May 2016) “Make it rain! Ice-forming bacteria could be 'sprayed onto clouds' to make artificial showers after experts discover how it works” available in http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3588750/Make-rain-Ice-forming-bacteria-sprayed-clouds-make-artificial-showers-scientists-discover-works.html#ixzz4lvszu1pL
(January 2015) “How Does Rain Form: Pseudomonas syringae” available in https://owlcation.com/stem/The-Rainmaker-Pseudomonas-syringae
L. C. Provence and E. D. B. Industrielle, “Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow?: What are the risks to human health??,” vol. 408, pp. 1659–1666, 2010.
L.W. Moore, J.W. Pscheidt (2107) " Diseases Caused by Pseudomonas syringe" available inhttps://pnwhandbooks.org/node/408/print