Tailings have a real potential for contamination of ecosystem told the relaxation of metals and metalloids that should manage adequately .
The mining industry is one of the major economic sources in Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). The mining activities contaminate environments seriously, and it has threatened human beings and ecosystems. Especially, the copper-cobalt mine (Cu-Co- U-Zn- Pb -Cd- Ge) in Katanga and Tin ores group (tin-Wolframite - Colombo-tantalite - Beryl -Monazite) in the eastern part as well as other non-enumerated deposits exploited or abandoned in the Democratic Republic of the Congo produce tailings resulting from mining and the concentration discharges containing metallic sulfide minerals exhibit high chemical instability. Exposed to the open air and to the water, they undergo various reactions generate sulfuric acid, allowing the dissolution of the metal elements. This behavior known as Acid mine drainage (AMD) is cause for pollution or contamination of surface water by contamination responsible to acid waters and metal ions such as Fe, Cu, As, etc., by increasing the toxicity of water. This acidity and high toxic metals concentration are harmful to the vegetation, aquatic life, and wildlife. The present study aims to evaluate the ability to fix contaminants in soils finally to avoid contamination of the trophic chain by the biochar electrode. In the margins of what has been done so, we say that the concentration of heavy metals in water, soil, sediment, and plant exceeds the normal threshold and this leads to contamination or toxicity in the past. How mining is generating activities in Congo and it is on that basis that the country’s economy, it is difficult to stop so the acid mine drainage can be treated and prevented. It would be a future concern for the fight against the production of acid mine drainage. In addition to its existence already the governments should find there is the aberrant solution through extensive scientific research.
•H2SO4 + Biochar active chemical functions to remove heavy metal and to increase cation exchange capacity,
•oxidation of biochar product by peanut shell with H2O2
What actions do you propose?
•Grafting of C3H4O2 increased 50-time capacity to remove Cu, Cd, Ni and same metals can be graft to treat anionic species of metal so Fe3+ was graft on the Biochar to treat As, Sb and Cr.
•The recovery of a rigid and inert inorganic support (goethite, perlite, sand, sludge) may be performed to improve the mechanical stability and availability of the active surface, as well as improve the hydraulic properties of reactive materials ( chitosan, alginate, iron oxide, aluminum oxide).
Mine waste management is part of the planning process for mining companies. At every stage of a mine's life, strategies and decisions can be made to facilitate the implementation of sustainable practices such as this one. Integrated mine waste management must take into account the expectations of the components that are responsible for discharges. In this project, the orientations and visions of rejection treatments have been emitted that the component can implement in the face of the problems faced with mining discharges during the generation of acid mine drainage in order to improve the quality of life of citizens.
Operators will be required to receive the materials use guide for the recovery of affected areas to be directed by civil society parties or national organizations that International for each process that is subject by this project in the restoration plan. In this case, to lighten the process teams will set up training beneficiaries including businesses and governments
Who will take these actions and which types of actors are involved?
In this context, the project, who will be involved are in first place civil society as running the government but also to accompany the submitted applications that companies will put into action. Authors should consult if necessary if a problem occurs technically.
As for the United Nations organizations will work with civil society to the implementation of the project for as comprehensive guidelines for the implementation of the potential and possible amendments
Where will these actions be taken and how could they scale?
This project will be implemented in the Copperbelt province of Katanga in DRCongo, and almost solve the abandoned mines that are generating acid mine drainage.
When the guideline are ready, local NGOs are responsible for the support to communities to use their maps. This is done through community meetings, training meetings and public meetings to discuss issues presented by the planning management(Using Biochar in remediation on Tailings waste) . Local NGOs also provide communities with existing laws related to their cases, and training on simple and accessible advocacy tools they could use with or without their support.
In addition, specify the countries where these actions will be taken.
What impact will these actions have on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?
Biochar can mitigate climate change
- By reducing consumption of fossil fuel and
- Capturing CO2 and sequestering carbon in the soil
In a world dependent on fossil fuels, it is easy to see the benefits of carbon capture biochar as offsets against current and future fossil fuel emissions. Many scientists believe that there is already a dangerous excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forcing the nations that caused the excess to reduce it. It should be noted that from 1850 to 2000, 34% of carbon dioxide emissions were attributed to the clearing. Therefore, in a sense, the first objective of biochar is to restore the lost carbon in the ground because the last 150 years of agricultural practice. After that, the particular durability of biochar allow the accumulation of more carbon in soils, with other fertility benefits.
What are the most innovative aspects and main strengths of this approach?
Although the change appears to account for most of the cost of using modified materials, transportation could also be a significant part of the total cost of water treatment.
As a result, modification of nearby materials, regeneration and reuse of sorbent materials, recovery of metals, reuse of treated wastewater, and use of peanut shell reduce treatment costs. Depending on the metal removal mechanism, an acid, saline solution, a basic solution or a chelating agent should be used. For inorganic sorbents that cannot be (properly) regenerated, the option to recover and reuse sludge reduces the cost of water treatment by up to 25%, and also reduces sludge management issues. Biomass has also been found to be effective in the treatment of wastewater (treatment of mine drainage), tailing manufacturing of construction materials, prevention of mine drainage and sequestration of CO2.
What are the proposal’s projected costs?
Acid mine drainage causes ecological damage in downstream areas. Some costs may be incurred by mining companies in the form of tailings containment, water treatment, and reclamation costs. Historically, however, the costs have been borne by the government when the mining companies responsible for the original mine are defunct. Modern mining companies are generally required (in the United States) to file a reinstatement bond, which contains funds alleged to be sufficient for the perpetual waste treatment. However, it appears that reclamation obligations are rarely or never enough to cover actual costs. Some expensive solutions with acid mine drainage, such as the mixture of sulfide residues with cement. have been proposed as cost-effective, especially if ecosystems and future generation full cost of acid mine drainage are accounted for.
The treatment of acid mine drainage has in many cases proved to be economically impossible. Downstream human and ecological damage has been unavoidable, and costs are borne as ecosystem services lost. These losses include the costs of contaminated water, health problems associated with acidic waters and the toxicity of heavy metals, the loss of biological services from exterminated water organisms, and the loss of recreational fishing and fishing. subsistence and hunting opportunities.
A cost that is not supported by either the mining company or the mineral buyer (see our article on "Real Cost").
so the Estimated is
- For experiment (Feedstock: Peanut shell, labor, analysis etc.) = US$4000/country X 5 countries = US$20000.00
- For on-farm demonstration experiment (Labor cost, land rent, land preparation, DLS etc.) = US$40, 000/country/year X 5 countries X 5 years = US$1000,000.00
- For coordination and administration (stationery, communication etc) = US$2000/country/year x 5 countries x 5 years = US$50, 000.00
- Estimated total budget for one country = US$ 214 000.00
- Estimated total budget = 214 000.00 X 5 countries = US$1 070 000.00
About the Authors
BACIRHONDE MAHESHE Patrick, Candidate Master Degree in Environmental Engineering, Environmental Remediation Engineering Laboratory, Remediation of heavy metals considering existence status and mineral characteristics in soil and Valuable metal recovery from mine drainage on Chonbuk NationalUniversity, South Korea, September 2017.
Undergraduate in Earth Sciences, Planet, and Environment, Department of Geology and Mine, Orientation: Exploration and Mining Geology, University of Goma, DR Congo, November 2013.
I participate different conferences, seminars, local and international workshops: formation in GEORISQUE organized by the Museum Royal of Central Africa in Gisenyi, Rwanda; The 3rd Young Earth Scientists Congress, and The 25th colloquium of African Geology (August 2014) in Dar are Salam where I presented a topic orientated in Environment, hydrogeology and climate change “Quantification of the potential hydrogeological of NYIRAGONGO and development of has system of toilets management for the surrounding population”;
(September 2014) Workshop in Geophysical monitoring and modeling for sustainable energy and Geo-hazard solution organized by ICTP and the University of Rwanda;( March 2015) a workshop of formation organized by the Government and the Centre of Expertise and Geological Survey in the occasion of the celebration of the international day (December 2015) workshop at International Mining Day under the topic “the exploitation of resources mines of
the Nord Kivu: challenges and prospects for a sustainable development”.
Taken in your opinion into consideration of support the exceptional and Ambitious, I attach more importance to action than to theoretical ideas Scientist of formation especially in Geoscience and environmentalist mining
Bindu lumoo Alain I am a geologist and I got my Bachelor degree in Exploration geology and mining at nature conservation and development of Kasougho university , agent at national fund of promotion and social service which is a governmental organization and the company geomines and technology services company “AGETESCO” Sarl Candidate master degree in civil, environmental and railroad engineering at PAI CHAI University; South Korea in the field of environment and Geographic Information System “GIS”
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What enabling environment would be required in order to implement this proposal?
Regarding the economic dimension, the main result is that all projects have a very short payback period - in the year following the monetization of surplus crops. Crop yields for which biochar is used is crucial to establish the economic balance, which means that the choice of the farmer's crop can be as important as the type of soil in which biochar is used. Overall, the economics of biochar projects analyzed in the case studies are largely determined by the price received by farmers (or lack thereof) for growing surpluses due to biochar additions in the ground.
Development institutions like the World Bank could be involved in the provision of services focused on knowledge - and technology, and financing of mining waste management projects in the biomass amendment and organizing programs of research. These initiatives could help create successful alliances between researchers and development professionals in the field.
It will be essential to involve the private sector to address the lack of funds, which generally limits the implementation of new technologies with long lead times and considerable need for research. Innovative financing solutions will be needed. Given the potential of biochar systems, it is important to create synergies with other projects and programs and to draw lessons from existing projects.
The benefits of biochar in tailings management can have effects on four main aspects:
1. Tailings health and agricultural productivity; soil pH, nutrient availability, soil moisture, sediment organic matter, amount of biochar used;
2. climate change; Carbon storage and stabilization of CO2 emissions is surely the most direct and important benefit in climate change mitigation efforts from biochar, which is one of the few GHG reduction strategies. actually able to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide may be related to an inefficient process of pyrolysis and degradation of organic matter tailings after biochar use.
3. social impacts; biochar systems can have an impact on energy, health, the economy and food security by reducing pressure on forested ecosystems and reducing the burden (especially for women) of fuel through improved crops and increased resilience to crop failures and famine. Better cooking appliances can also reduce air pollution, although the use of biochar can lead to possible toxin emissions and inhalation of dust and fine particles. The energy produced from the biochar could eventually be used for vaccine refrigeration, water pumping, and lighting after sunset.
4. competing uses of biomass. In particular, biochar production could divert food crops for fuel production, divert arable land for food crops, and have a direct and indirect impact on land use. For example, the costs and benefits of leaving biomass in situ relative to those associated with its use to produce biochar, which is then added to the tailings, must be evaluated.