Uranium fuel is terribly harmful to biology & ecology! There is huge energy spin-locked in special but abundant elements with 2B potential.
With the catalysis of focused low energy neutrinos and other special means, some of those 2B isotopes can be outstood for fuel, provided it becomes possible for 2 sequential events of concatenating B1B2 with total energy Q(B1) + Q(B2) positive balance. This research at least proposes molybdenum 100Mo as promising candidate.
Although we have limited feasible choices for beta fuel, such as 176Lu, however more alternative candidates are always desirable and worthy to explore.
Many isotopes have potential of double beta decay that is regarded as a single burst event of simultaneously emitting 2 electrons or positrons, unfortunately half life is too extremely long time to be nuclear fuel if no way of decay acceleration. By the way, Majorana 0vBB researcher’s enthusiasm is still highly motivated by non-energy interest in pure theory.
I do not care about Majorana pure theory, I only care about energy. Fortunately the branch ratio of regular non-0vBB (i.e. 2vBB and vB1 + vB2) is far greater than the extreme unlikely 0vBB.
With the catalysis of focused neutrinos and other special means, some of those 2B isotopes can be outstood for fuel, provided it becomes possible for 2 sequential events of concatenating B1B2 with total energy Q(B1) + Q(B2) positive balance.
Generally speaking, not only beta or double beta fuel isotope, but also fission fuel, must be the one with very low or even the lowest abundance amid its sibling isotopes, because only stable isotope can survive forever with dominant abundance, if not, how can it be called decaying & gradual vanished unstable isotope? That is why fission fuel is the 0.7% 235U not 99.3% 238U.
Is this proposal for a practice or a project?
What actions do you propose?
The pattern of sign +/- combination of Q(B1) and Q(B2)
Studies show that Q(B1) < 0 & Q(B2) > 0 is the mainstream property amongst all natural existed 2B isotopes, except calcium 48Ca & zirconium 96Zr which Q(B1) & Q(B2) are both positive.
But nothing is worthy of sensational celebration even both separate betas are energetically possible, i.e. ++ combination, because usually high spin lock does block the first beta decay, i.e. the first step is crippled.
As focusable neutrinos are very low energy, if the first beta decay wish to be catalyzed, then the absolute |Q(B1)| should be as low as possible, as well as the nuclear first energy level E1 cannot be too high.
The E1 of 48Ca, 96Zr are 3831keV, 1581keV respectively, such high excitement energy obviously spoil the willful neutrinos catalyst.
Nomination on merit of favorability by thermal neutrinos
Perhaps most eminent isotopes are molybdenum 100Mo, selenium 82Se, and cadmium 106Cd with Q(B1): -169keV, -97keV & -195keV respectively, especially all their Q(B2) are about 3000keV that can in turn catalyze next B1 decay by fast electron coulomb excitation.
More importantly, all their parameters of half life of second beta decay is very short: 15 seconds, 6 minutes (via isomer) & 24 minutes respectively. Of those, the 106Cd is in style of electron capture then positron ejection (ECB+).
Fearing negative Q(B1), eh? No worries. Even unfocused neutrinos charged current can supply enough energy to make following large endothermic reaction occur:
proton + neutrino = neutron + positron - 1.29MeV
In 1956, the Nobel laureate Frederick Reines & Clyde Cowan had set up experiment to prove above reaction true provided the threshold energy of antineutrino is larger than 1.29MeV + positron mass = 1.8MeV, though the cross section is extremely small.
Now that we can focus low energy thermal neutrinos, of course, overcoming Q(B1) a few of hundreds keV is not big deal, and surely exponential high cross section is expected. Moreover, as the half life of ensuing B2 of well-selected fuel is very short, the quasi-instant gained Q(B2) circa 3MeV is capable enough to pay back the Q(B1) debt, and such a positive feedback can further catalyze next B1 by coulomb excitation or Bremsstrahlung photon excitation.
As to reaction equations for educational purpose, here exampled in the 100Mo:
100Mo -> 100Tc – 169keV, catalysis of focused neutrinos is needed.
100Tc -> 100Ru + 3204keV, t1/2 = 15.46s.
Interestingly & favorably, the intermediate product technetium 100Tc can only exist a very short moment, not only that, but in fact, none sibling of isotopes of this element family can still survive in current universe, i.e. family abundance = 0, what a revelation of possible nuclear fuel!
Enlightment of the Great Nature
Philosophically thinking, photons can be regarded as the basic “tax” levied by the Great Nature for cosmic welfare, it comes from energy gain of every atom’s electron shell activity, so as to further cast light rays with numerous photons, because in His universal love, everywhere is created equal and should deserve of opportunity of illumination.
Without such generous and abundant basic “tax” 50% (orbital potential = 2*kinetics), our human beings have to live in dark world forever, even can not survive.
In addition, neutrinos can be regarded as the luxury “tax” 40% - 50% or nuclear “tax”, equivalent to Canadian income tax limit, but far larger than Trump's objective of tax cut plan:)
A reasonable proportion must be deducted from the released energy of every beta decay in form of any distance reachable neutrino, so as to expand cosmic, and provide accessible Promethean nuclear igniter anywhere anytime for energy production at convenient disposal.
That is why we are being “bombarded” by abundant free neutrinos supply from the nuclear fusion powered Sun and all stars, plus comic background relic.
Perhaps, the mysterious UFO is just a beneficiary of such a nuclear “tax”: powered by such a simple means of focused-neutrino-catalyzed controllable ? decay, but never by Dyson sphere.
Great advantage: clean nuclear energy!
For traditional fission fuel 235U, roughly output 1MeV energy per nucleon, in contrast, B or BB fuel is roughly 20keV per nucleon, obviously far lesser, but the great advantage is that such ideal clean energy actually features decent energy density, no risk of both nuclear proliferation and waste radioactive pollution! Of course, as the low abundance of the wanted isotopes, enrichment process is also highly preferred for commercial reactors provided costs is marginally worthwhile for profitable energy production.
Support our research with inspiration from the Great Nature
More experiments, theoretical analysis and calculation are needed for reselection or verification. Perhaps there is only last mile to success in my current BB fuel experiments.
If thou or thy entity hath surplus disposable fund, why not to follow the goodwill of the Great Nature? I do need financial support to deeply explore all possible nuclear energy for humankind future, but my current deplorable status quo is not viable, despite of bearing ambition to make America great again and drive world civilization great breakthrough! As a quid pro quo, due credits and returns will be earmarked for thy generous contribution in hilarious celebration of the final great successes.
Textbooks assert that decay rate is invariable. However, science discovery and technology innovation are always advancing, therefore “Do not let anyone tell you it cannot be done”, the president Trump’s voice is still resounding.
Thanks for Donald Trump’s resplendent philosophic gedanken and renewal call of American spirit to encourage me continuing this unblessed & unfunded kind of lonely energy research, otherwise I have never any chance to approach success so closely until now.
Small donation also welcome, even snack-size. Receiving Paypal account: email@example.com; Big donation? please contact us first by firstname.lastname@example.org for agreement provision.
Your contribution will relieve me from low income small farming activity that is hardly self-supporting all current scientific research. Thank you very much!
Once success in BB nuclear fuel, I will declare it in my twitter @kiwaho, just follow me now.
How we research on BB fuel ?
At first, we need build a good thermal neutrino optical system to focus solar thermal neutrinos, and complex measurement instrumentation for calorie metering, gamma detection, hot electrons scatter monitoring, etc. (Attention: ONLY for 1keV to 100keV low energy neutrino. No way to bend high energy neutrino, any try will fail & waste time)
Then we will conduct theory calculations to select out all possible isotopes, study their isomers properties (include intermediate isotopes), and short-list by factor-weighed order on some key parameters B2 half time, spin change, threshold energy, etc.
At last, we enumeratedly try all selected isotopes in a focused neutrinos catalysis experimental system with different configurations, and evaluate the energy performance.
Following is just a simple figure of one possible experiment configuration, but not limited to:
We are open to co-operate with any interested party or entity in exploration of any clean nuclear energy technology.
Who will take these actions?
Where will these actions be taken?
Wish embrace USA, may consider immigration if any entity sponsors.
In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.
No country selected
No country selected
No country selected
No country selected
No country selected
What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?
* No toxic nuclear waste at all. Even it is possible that the resultant is more valuable than fuel itself.
* Zero greenhouse emission.
* When catalysis cutoff, nuclear beta "combustion" immediately restores to the natural long long time slow "burning".
What are other key benefits?
What are the proposal’s projected costs?
High Net Worth Individual (HNWI), any entity, even Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) in the world are welcome to funding this project. But in order to comply with nuclear nonproliferation treaty, refuse any international sanctioned investor by U.N. or U.S.
The sovereign wealth fund can monopolize fruits & rights exclusively if there is one investment, then buyout all personal or any other entity's rights via negotiation.
About the author(s)
Focused neutrinos and alt-superconductor catalyzed betavoltaic nuclear reactor
Which Elements Can be Candidates of Concatenating double beta Decay Nuclear Fuel?http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0279v1.pdf
Comments: 4 pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33906.50884
- Focused neutrinos and alt-superconductor catalyzed betavoltaic nuclear reactor, by Yanming Wei, 2017 http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0280v1.pdf
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27195.62248
- New Discoveries in Parkhomov’s 60co Astro-Catalyzed Beta Decay
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30632.9856
- Nuclear data of 100Mo from U.S. gov.