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3D Rain by Water Dust

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This proposal was moved here from Buildings Workspace 2016


Device that reduces water consumption by generating huge surface of water contact.



Water is a scarce resource which will always be fundamental for all living beings. Nowadays, sink faucets are designed in a way which doesn´t take water consumption into account. This proposal involves reducing water consumption by using a faucet adaptor which allows saving energy and reducing CO2 emissions to the environment at the same time. In Argentina, water and energy are financed by the state, therefore these savings could also help make this proposal economically sustainable throughout time and ameliorate the service by reducing its demand.

Is this proposal for a practice or a project?


What actions do you propose?

Our plan proposes a complete redesign of all the faucets, starting with those in buildings with massive use such as offices, public or commercial spaces, and lastly with those in less significant establishments as residential buildings and houses. This matrix could be copied and put into use in any other country of the world. 

Problems about the contemporary design of faucets related to potable water consumption:

1. Faulty water regulators: In some cases they don´t exist. In others, they don´t distribute water in a way that creates as much surface as possible to eliminate soap from hands in a quick and efficient way. 

2. Low pressure: This causes people to open the faucet more which also wastes more water.


• 3D prints are essential to fabricate cheap adaptors for those who can´t afford installing new faucets.

• By regulation, new faucets must be made with the updated version of the adaptor.

• Contact manufacturers and help them along the fabrication process to minimize the industrial cost the new implementation implies.


Installing the adaptors:

• Industries must update existing faucets, changing the installations or simply sticking the adaptors to existing faucets.

• Pressure is no longer a problem since the adaptor increases water pressure  restricting the flow


Rol of state:

• The state can help by enforcing a law which contemplates using water responsibly, since all costs end up being at the state´s expense. 

• Install water regulators which measure local potable water consumption and bill the corresponding expense for its responsible use. 

• With water and electrical savings, the state can cover industrial expenses implicated in  applying the adaptors to standard faucets which will allow a continuous financial and consumption saving cycle.

Who will take these actions?

Where will these actions be taken?

These actions should first take place in spaces with massive attendance, such as public establishments, offices, gastronomic spots, shopping malls and recreational spaces which  require a constant use of potable water.  Once the remodeling of these places has concluded, faucets in places with minor water flow rate, such as residential buildings, should be updated and replaced. 

The project emerges from the necessity of optimizing potable water usage in an action as simple as washing one´s hands, which happens in every country and cultural.

Argentina is the ideal place to test the economic aspect of this proposal since it still doesn´t cover 100% of its potable water network but plans on doing so for 2019.

Argentina's situation:

39.8 million people live in urban areas [2] x 0.87% of access to the public network of potable water [2] = 34.6 million of people involved.

Argentina plans on covering 100% of the access to the potable water´s network for 2019, implying a USD $22,000 million investment.

Current water flow = 5,500,000 m³ daily [3]

Predicted water flow for 2019 = Current flow + (13% x current flow) = 6,215,000 m³ daily

3.785 liters (1 gallon) of water consumed / hand wash[5] x 10 hand washes / daily[6] x 39.8 million people (100% potable water network) = 1,506,430,000 daily liters consumed in hand washing

1,506,430,000 liters consumed daily  x  52% of reduction with the adaptor = 783,343,600 liters daily = 783,343.6 m³ saved daily

783,343.6 m³ daily = 14.24% current water flow = 110% of increment projected for 2019 = USD $20,000 million saved from investing in water potabilization plants (only once) (3.66% of argentina's PIB 2016)

Without taking into account savings in monthly operative costs, only with the monetary saving by avoiding an unnecessary investment is sufficient to finance this and other complementary projects.

In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.


Country 2

United States

Country 3


Country 4


Country 5

No country selected


What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?

World population = 7300 million people [7] x  54% of the population that lives in urban areas [7]  x  91% of the population in urban areas with access to potable water[7] = 3587.22 million people involved

3587.22 million People x 10 hand washes / day [6] x 365 days / year x 3.785 Liters (1 Gallon)[5] x 52% savings from the prototype = 25,770.33 million m³ saved per year

9.51 KWh / m³ water [4] x 25,770.33 million m³ water / year = 245,075.90 millions of KWh saved per year

0.0005925 Tons CO2 / KWh x 245,075.90 million KWh / year = 145.20 million of tons CO2 saved per year


What are other key benefits?

• Energy savings: 

245,075.90 millions of KWh = 245.07 millions of MWh saved per year

• Cost savings:

With an estimated average energy cost of 90 USD/MWh, savings add up to 90 USD / MWh x 245.07 millions MWh / year = 22,065.30 million USD /year.

Less use and maintenance of water network.

• Better quality of service.

Better government image and reputation.

• Fast production ( industrial case )

• Easy installation ( 3D print case)

• Cheapest adaptor production ( 3D case )


What are the proposal’s projected costs?


About the author(s)

Nicolas Rodriguez Herrera is an ITBA engineering student.

Eduardo Fracassi, is an industrial engineer, who studied at ITBA,  former 2016  Kiri Team Coordinator and Climate Colab Industry category winner; and is a Climate Change Professor at ITBA.

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