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African cities emerge as climate change hotspots due to convergence of vulnerabilities; geographical, socio-economic and political.



Today more than ever before, people are flocking to cities and urban centers at an unprecedented rate. By the year 2014, more than half the global population lived in cities. The UN-Habitat estimates that by the year 2030, built up urban spaces will triple in size globally.

While cities and urban areas are drivers of economic prosperity and important centers of population concentration and growth, they are under increasing pressure from climatic change and variability. Globally, cities and urban centers have increasingly become climate change hotspots that face particularly high-level impacts, resulting from global warming. Today, more than ever before climate change impacts are having far-reaching effects on cities and its residents.

Addressing adaptation in the context of cities and urban centers present special challenges, urban centers, and cities are areas of high population concentration and economic activity. In deciding which adaptation options to apply, city managers have to grapple with multiple complexities which are influenced by ongoing urban development and climate change. Addressing the additional stress of climate change will require cities to prioritize adaptation actions and make new adaptation investment to seize opportunities before the impacts of climate change inflict unmanageable costs. 

Is this proposal for a practice or a project?


What actions do you propose?

Risk-based assessment of impacts of current and projected future climate change on urban landscapes can inform the emerging design of adaptation infrastructure.  The assessment involves screening of climate change risks in the urban landscape and identifying the vulnerabilities arising from sea level rise, hurricanes, flooding, and drought).

The study will then focus on identification of adaptation options to mitigate the risk of climate change. Finally, the adaptation options will be appraised by identifying and measuring investment return versus cost. Some of the appraisal tools that will be used include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), Cost-effectiveness analysis and multi-criteria analysis using expert judgment. The most robust adaptation investment options will then be selected and prioritized within the frame of ongoing urban development.

Qualitative research will be used to identify adaptation options, these will include interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions (FGDs). Secondary sources of data will also be explored to provide more information on possible adaptation options for enhancing water resources in Mombasa city.

 Assessment will be used to propose adaptive options for enhancing water security for the coastal city. Adaptation options will then be appraised using cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and multi-criteria analysis to help in the prioritization of options for enhancing water security in Mombasa city.


An assessment of water resources against future climate change scenarios and proposing adaptive actions will help ensure that there is a coherent approach for city managers, policy makers and city planners to establish both short and long-term adaptation strategies for the water sector.  The proposed options will also guide city managers to make informed investment decisions and agree on priority actions.


Understanding impacts of climate change on water resources that serve Mombasa city will require an in-depth examination of a host of interrelated factors that make the city and its populations increasingly vulnerable to water insecurity as a result of climate change and variability.


Scenario analysis methods will be used in the construction of different possible climate models of the city of Mombasa in the year 2030-2050; a scenario funnel will then be used to depict the space within which possible developments may unfold. The purpose is to generate a body of knowledge which will serve as a compass for informing expected impacts on water resources and possible priority adaptive interventions.

Who will take these actions?

Where will these actions be taken?

In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.

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Country 5

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What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?

What are other key benefits?


What are the proposal’s projected costs?


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