Prevention of floods by cultivating rainwater in aquifer beds by luis fernando cepedes valencia
The proposal is the materialisation of a sewer by gravity of rainwater that will be used to recharge the aquifers,
About aquifer exploitation
Wells can dry out if the water table falls below its initial depth, which occasionally occurs in years of drought, and for the same reasons the springs can dry out. The recharge regime can be altered by other causes such as deforestation, considering that vegetation cover work like a sponge, allowing infiltrate water to the roots of trees or into underground aquifers without them water drains causing growing and floods
Or, otherwise, by eliminating forest from the mountains, the risk of floods is magnified and accessibility to good quality water decreases, especially in urban areas, or due to the extension of impermeable pavements, as occurs in urban and industrial areas. .
In some parts of the world, the expansion of irrigation and other activities that consume water has been made at the expense of aquifers whose recharge is slow or almost nil. This has had some negative consequences such as the drying of springs and wet areas or the intrusion of salt into coastal aquifers. In some cases overexploitation has favored the intrusion of saline water by the proximity of the coast, causing salinization of water and indirectly that of agricultural soils.
Several authors have referred to the issue of overexploitation, we report one of the most commonly accepted definitions.
Artificial recharge is a technique of management of water resources extended worldwide. It consists of the express introduction of large quantities of rainwater to the underground aquifer, through a variety of systems such as infiltration ponds, deep recharge wells, ditches and other mechanisms. These techniques are practiced not only in countries with water shortages to increase the resources available, countries since Water quality improves through its passage through the subsoil. The benefits of using groundwater are clearly demonstrated, as aquifers operate as a water storage, managed efficiently,
What actions do you propose?
1. The exploitation of groundwater for the carrying out of industrial or residential activities, whether of a legal or illegal nature, makes it necessary to pump from the underground aquifer mantle to the surface, inexorably generating the decrease in the piezometric level, either in the immediate surroundings of the wells or in a wide area. The descent occurs whenever there is extraction of groundwater in areas of little or no infiltration, because on the surface there is a layer of stony or cementitious material or an asphalt surface, although not The exploitation of the piezometric level is due to the non-existence of infiltration of rainwater. This is a clear sign that it may be in a situation of overexploitation, and a systematic monitoring of the recharge levels must be carried out.
2. Induced soil compaction; This phenomenon can be verified mainly in confined aquifers, where the decrease in interstitial pressure can lead to an irreversible rearrangement of loose particles, especially in detritic aquifers, causing soil subsidence.
3. Compartmentalization of aquifers; When the tectonic structure is complex, in the presence of steps in the impermeable substrate, with raised and other sunken sectors, when lowering the piezometric level, part of the aquifer can be separated, hidden behind an elevation of the impermeable bottom. This will cause a rapid and substantial reduction of aquifer capacity.
The current methods of guerrilla warfare used by the illegal actors of the conflict have not only incurred the deterioration of the vegetal cover, but also, in the elimination of the infiltration characteristics of the subsoil, since they go from the blasting of pipelines to the pollution of aqueducts, indiscriminate felling, the extraction of minerals, the alteration of the course of the rivers, among others. The explosion of oil pipelines and illegal mining, added to the abrupt changes imposed by the current macroeconomic model on land and river uses, as well as the concession of aquifers for the exploitation of natural gas and hydrocarbons, have generated damages serious environmental problems that can not yet be quantified. Land eroded by abandonment or inappropriate use, sources of water contaminated by the spill of hydrocarbons, species of fauna and flora extinct or at risk of extinction and we stopped that they should become true hydrographic reserves invaded by mining concessions, seeking to guarantee the profit of foreign multinationals, are some of the impacts that the war has caused on the environment in which the aquifers are immersed.
The damage caused by the spill of hydrocarbons in the territories is an action that contaminates the soils and, it is only comparable by extension and magnitude to the development of hydroelectric power stations since all the biota of the soil is lost, a set of factors that determine the processes of organic matter and generation of nutrients for plants. Removing oil from a soil is practically impossible, as well as removing large areas of water stored in areas that have to be abandoned, is unusable for the production of food or the generation of native forest or areas, if the oil is irrigated the earth causes irreversible damage, with water the deterioration is not minor. experts argue that aliphatic hydrocarbons isolate the surface of rivers or lakes from the atmosphere and there is no oxygen exchange, "and create an environment that is not suitable for life. One of the great consequences when there are spills on water is the total loss of the process of water infiltration on the ground
The aquifers mantos susceptible to be recharged that are in zone of conflict
Area with intense agricultural exploitation or area that arouses a certain environmental interest.
1. Aquifers with intense extraction for drinking purposes
2. Zones with an expected increase in extraction for the future, whether scheduled or spontaneous (for example: population growth in a city or town whose drinking water supply system is fed from aquifers, expansion of the agricultural frontier in farms supplied with groundwater, etc.)
3. Aquifers that show a progressive degradation of water quality
4. Areas with high concentrations of nitrates.
5. Areas with deteriorated environmental values ??or in danger of disappearing.
6. Areas with problems of continental or marine saline intrusion (coastal aquifers)
7. Aquifers in areas where the availability of surface water shows a marked seasonal variation
The various geological formations have different characteristics in terms of their porosity and their permeability. factors that allow easy movement of water, as is the case, of alluvium, sand, etc. Others will present a high porosity, being able consequently to store considerable amounts of water, but without allowing the easy displacement of the same, The diverse information will make of the variability in the level of precitaciones this determined to maximize the effects of lost of infiltrate in the zones where one or more factors associated with violence are present, seeking to determine the reality of the aquifer mantles under factors of degradation of the geological substrate material that supports it, which prevents rainwater from reaching the necessary depth for its storage, or passing to feed the flow of the rivers, or return directly to the seas because of the percolation, where the cycle begins again. taking into account the losses caused by the runoff towards contributions or losses towards the deep layers. However, for these layers the hydrological cycle is much longer than for the surface aquifer layers and is therefore not linked to the current climate rhythm. This hydrological cycle is of geological order (from a few millennia to hundreds of thousands of years.) The variation of the underground water reserves is associated with the amount of rainwater that is effectively infiltrated, and is defined as the water surface. that reaches the saturated zone, after the soil reaches a humidity equal to this capacity, a recharge occurs to the saturated layer.The intensity of the transpired water can exceed the intensity of the soil supply water,
Who will take these actions?
At present, the central theme of the center-periphery vision proposed by ECLAC in the 1950s was the distribution of productivity increases that derive from technical change. The forms and mechanisms of this distribution have not changed over the last fifty years, bearing in mind that the central question remains more valid than ever. The consolidation of highly corrupt regional states and tyrannies that carry out the distribution of the increases of productivity between generating centers and propagators of technical progress which have specialized in the control of the world productive and peripheries, subordinated by the unscrupulous management of capital resources the first in terms of technological absorption and international productive positioning of strategic resources. renewable; and on the other, the distribution of these productivity gains within the centers and peripheries, taking into account the positions of the social groups that affect the productive process. In yellow, the overlapping of mining titles in areas of páramos, natural parks and other restricted areas for all mining activity is shown. A large part of the water supply basins, such as the large river of Magdalena, are titled for the mining or exploitation of hydrocarbons, an activity that generates a large amount of pollutants and which, in the case of gold, requires cyanide or mercury to be able to be carried finished. This goes against the fundamental right to water and the priority destination of liquid for human consumption. The strategic minerals nickel and blue iron, brown coal, gold and silver, the first factor in air pollution in the world and, therefore, as one of the main reasons for climate change. The second is a completely sumptuary good that to be extracted necessarily requires the use of mercury, a toxic substance that was banned by the European Parliament in the old continent, "since it is the only sure way to protect our water resources and ecosystems.
Where will these actions be taken?
The main characteristic of the last three decades is the serious over-exploitation of Colombia's water and natural resources, this situation is associated with political violence that since the middle of the last century has spread over a large part of the national geography, creating necessary conditions for the establishment of illegal mining and over exploitation of aquifers, which has allowed the current hegemonic center of power, the United States forward the largest intervention in recent years in Latin America and causing one of the most serious environmental crisis in the world
since at present Colombia is in a situation of armed conflict framed in a war against natural resources, which is highlighted by the marginal nature of the conflict, which manifests itself in tolerance or complicity with the paramilitaries, the extreme harshness against the communist party and the armed left by sectors of the military forces, giving special significance to the generalization of violence due to the harshness of the institutional crisis and the disorganization of the social fabric associated with corruption, all of which is a central reference point of the armed division of society, for which it would be improper to describe civil war as a civil war, in which a large part of the American interests and of the State itself supports the expansion of paramitar on the appropriation of natural resources. The successor groups of the paramilitary activity have a brutal impact on the situation not only humanitarian but of destruction of the most strategic ecosystems of the country, the resurgence especially in Antioquia, where these groups coincided with a significant increase in the rates of internal displacement in the whole country from 2004 until at least 2016 and the partial destruction of the choco by foreign multinationals, which seek the illegal extraction of gold, silver and platinum from the Atrato basin
What are other key benefits?
It is an integral system of recovery of hard waters to the industrial sector, mining, hotel, which not only uses alternative energy for its operation ostensibly lowering operating costs, but also returns the oxygen lost during the oxidation of metal ions
It allows the widening of water molecules by the continuous exchange of oxygen lost during oxidation and reduction processes with mineral agents present in degraded soil, but also facilitates the recovery of unwanted materials present in aqueous solutions, which are in the upper simplifying its collection, said process of separation of liquids is due to the difference in density between the various components of the solution, composed of a mixture of solids or suspensory liquids whose diameter allows easy separation by means mechanics,
What are the proposal’s costs?
All human activity and especially the urbanizing, mining, energy and agricultural sectors entails the deterioration of the infiltration capacity of the soil, by eliminating one of the main functions of natural vegetation, and is the ability to intercept precipitation and promote evapotranspiration , in addition to disappearing the set of irregularities in the ground turning them into storage mirrors of the precipitated water. This translates into the interruption of the natural water cycle and the recharge of aquifers, whose most relevant effects are:
The increase of peak flow or maximum flow registered during an avenue or flood, which allows a magnification of the risk of removal or mass drag
Higher runoff volumes, which leads to an increase in the potential risk of flooding due to gravity, as higher volumes of rainwater flow towards the floodplains
The increase of the potential risk of floods or mass removal phenomena, since the disappearance of the infiltration and evapotranspiration processes, the water circulating on the surface towards the hillside areas will increase.
The total number of people registered is 3,219.23914, 73% (2,350,207) are affected and the remaining 27% (869,032) affected, which means 7.0%
the national population. Similarly, in the rud, 874,464 valid homes are reported. The analysis in this chapter is based on the total number of people registered
(affected and affected).
In the only single registry of the affected population, 1,016 missing and 1,374 dead persons are identified. Atlántico, Bolívar and Magdalena register about 300 dead and missing each one. In Antioquia, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Norte
Santander and Santander report between 100 and 200 dead or missing in each, and add up to 31.3% of the total (figure 2.3). Of the 21 municipalities with 20 or more people in that situation, 6 are in Magdalena.
1. Short term Preliminary vision: Design and determination of study areas The first step in the process of technical assistance for gravity flood control obeys the integrated development planning process, is to consult with local planners and decision-makers. of decisions, as the focus will be on measures to mitigate not only the flood risk but also the mass removal
2. Medium term, Evaluate natural events that impose a significant danger in the region associated with deforestation processes, legal or illegal mining through the existing information on hydrogeological threats that is probably sufficient; If the information on geological hydrogeological threats was not adequate, an analysis should be entrusted to a third agency. In relation to floods, landslides and desertification, it is likely that the planning team will be able to complete the existing information and prepare the analysis. Studies conducted in the departments of Atlántida and Islas de la Bahía, in Honduras, included an assessment of the flood threat in the coastal development plan and another on landslides in some inland regions.
Long term; have not yet been contemplated
Importance of groundwater
Groundwater is the largest source of fresh water available, which is why more than half of the world's population uses it for its consumption; It also has a large
number of advantages, since it has excellent natural quality, because in general it is free of pathogens, color and turbidity, and can be consumed directly without treatment, or after a simple treatment; It is widely
distributed and supply systems can be developed in places very close to the places where the needs are presented, thus avoiding the construction of large distribution systems; their sources are reliable and in general they are not affected in the presence of short droughts; and its development can increase over time, thus avoiding the need to store large amounts of water.