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Using agricultural wastes and sewages to produce biogas can reduce impacts of improper disposal of wastes, burning forests and cutting trees


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Summary

It's common in Africa to find people cutting trees and burning forests for firewood and charcoal yet are surrounded by many kinds of wastes which could be used as primary source of energy. Burning of forests and bushes increases excess of CO2 in atmosphere leading to air pollution which accelerate global warming and climate change. again, improper disposal of wastes stimulate environmental degradation which later cause climate change. The main purpose of this paper is to use agricultural wastes, sewages, and other organic matters to produce renewable source of energy through biogas technology. 15 small-scale biogases will be constructed in different families located at Rwesero cell( Ruhango district) in southern province of Rwanda which have higher population growth rate, where families will be chosen based on agricultural wastes and sewages  they produce. Different parteners including REMA, MINAGRI,LEG,NGO and Local people will help in implementation of the project, advicing people on proper utilization of biogas and sensitization  of people on effects of cutting trees and burning forests to the environment. The total cost of the project is estimated to be 23905 euros which cover all activities to be done during its implementation, and the project is expected to reduce cutting trees and burning  forest by 70% with the help of using biogas technique as the best waste recycle way which will provide the energy needed by people living the area. improper disposal of all kinds of waste should be reduced since this results in environmental degradation which later cause climate change leading to loss of life for the people due to creation of diseases.


What actions do you propose?

The project will focus on the following main actions:

-To use agricultural wastes and sewages as alternative source of renewable energy through biogas technology. this will be done through distributing 15 small-scale biogases to the families which produce more agricultural residues and sewages. most African counties are engaged in agriculture in addition to high population growth rate , poor sanitation, lack of customized technology adopted to local situations which all contribute to climate changes. therefore proper disposal and recycling of wastes is needed

-To improve understanding on proper disposal o animal, agricultural residues and sewages which in return provide electricity leading to economic development especially in rural areas. this is due to fact that lack of enough waste facilities, failure to segregate the waste, poor funding by communities, poor sanitation, unsufficient awareness and willingness of people can als bring impacts on climate change.

-To sensitize the population  to reduce bush burning, wood or forest burning which produce green house gases. most African people use firewood, charcoal, peatcoal as source of energy, and this leads to emission of CO2 in atmosphere and create global warming which is part of climate change. 


Who will take these actions?

The project will be undertaken by many participants and organizations from different sectors of Rwanda including the following:

1.REMA( Rwanda environmental management athaurity): this will provide advices and contribution  in implementation of the project without destroying or degradation of environment. since the project will involve doing more activities like digging, constructing, and disposal of waste, the environment need to be protected.

2.MINAGRI( Ministry of agriculture): this will help in identifying where to locate biogas based on agricultural wastes produced in the place, the number of cows per family, and economic status of the place.

3.LEG(Light energy generation): this will help to advice the local people on how to use biogas as another source of energy. they will also teach the people on importance of using biogas than other sources like firewood, peatcoal, and charchoal which affect in environment.

4.NGO( Non-government organization): this will help to study the feasibility of the project in line with sustainable development goals in Rwanda.

5. Local people: those will help in implementation of the project like in construction, bringing other necessary materials from  the source to the site. the will also provide the agricultural wastes and sewages needed for running biogas to generate electricity.


Where will these actions be taken?

The project will be implemented in one of African countries, Rwanda(developing country). it will take place particulary at Rwesero cell( Ruhango district) because this place is inhabited by many people engaged in agriculture , people have more cows hence produce more sewages and other organic wastes, the place do not have electricity though it is economical rapid developing place, it is overpopulated place by which the need for other alternative source of energy is required to conserve environment or to reduce the use of firewood and charcoal sources which are mostly used in the place. again this place is being subjected by climate change, there is continuous heating or increased temperature especially in dry season or summer from june to September. also the area receive excessive rainfall in wet season which is followed by natural disasters like flooding, house destruction, soil erosion. all those mentioned above are due to excessive cutting of trees looking for firewood and charcoal as the known source of energy in this area. therefore, distributing small-scale biogases among the people in this area will reduce significantly the effects on environmental degradation including climate change.


What are other key benefits?

The project will have many impacts not only on environment, society but also to the economy either for the people or the country in general.

Environmentally, the project will reduce cutting trees looking for firewood and charcoal, hence this will leads to environmental sustainability by reducing emission of green house gases in atmosphere hence reduce global warming which is part of climate change.

Socially, the project will employ many people during its implementation. it will also help the people to gain knowledge on the use of biogas and how to construct it. people will get renewable source of energy to produce electricity, people will become environment friends, there will be improvement in hygienic conditions in the families since wastes will be disposed in proper way.

Economically, the project will contribute to sustainable development goals, it will bring new activities like hairdressing , cantines, photocopying and printing documents which accelerate the economy of the country.


What are the proposal’s costs?

Activities, materials and equipments that will be used and their costs ( euros)  are as follows

1.earth excavation                            850

 

2.cement, sand, and aggregate for concrete  3400

 

3.transportation of materials        2740

 

4.steel bars       1845

 

5.construction of biogas components    3870

 

6.generators and digesters   3700

 

7.installation of electric wires   2500

 

8. wages of labours      1570

 

9.communication and transport     1030

 

10.sensitization and advicing     2400

 

TOTAL              23,905 (euros)

 


Time line

The design period of project is 20 years which exceed the short term period of 5-10 years. later, since there is higher population growth rate with large multiplication  of animal wastes, and demand of firewood and charcoal, there will be construction of large-scale biogas plant which will convey all agricultural wastes to produce sufficient electricity to entire place. this will cover the medium term (20-50 years) and long term (50-100 years).


Related proposals


References

Ruhamya, c. (2017). waste management and environment

Wachira.k (1922). power utility approach to waste management of faulty electrical power equipment

Eng.Gomaa.H.(2016). Biogas generation from agricultural wastes. An Egyptian experience in a nile delta village.

Eng. Ohaga.(2015). DONDORA turning wastes to energy. Kigali convention center.

Rwanzunga et all.(2017). A feasibility, sustainable, and customizable solution for effective solid wastes management in African cities.

Ingabire et all.(2017). recycling high density polyethylene into construction materials as a key step in plastic waste reduction.