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NTFPs may provide bases to adapt climate change in midhills of Nepal.



Forest products other than fuel wood and timber are known as non timber forest products. For subsistence livelihood in the middle hills, NTFPs have important role in health care (Edward, 1993). Bacteria, Fungi, lichens, Mosses, Ferns, higher plants and products of wild life also are included in NTFPs by Peters (1994).

Methods of utilization, management and conservation of NTFPs depend on practices of the local people. In Nepal, non timber forest products are the sources of medicine, oil, fiber, cloths, fodder, food, construction materials etc.(Pathak, 2010). However, their availability and continuous use in socio economic upliftment of people is being threatened by the destructive activities such as extraction of timber, shifting cultivation, uncontrolled harvesting etc.

NTFPs provide biological resources to us as well as non consumptive services such as cultural and religious services, tourism and recreational services, environmental services etc (Walter, 1998).

NTFPs are not only supplying the needs of the local people but are the sources of economy to the people of Panchase Conservation Area in central Nepal (DFRS, 2013).

 In Nepal, 10-100% households are involved in collecting medicinal plants and other NTFPs. About 50% family incomes over there is from NTFPs (Ghimire et al, 2008). The economic valuation from these non timber forest products may provide the actual contribution of them in ecosystem based adaptation of the local people in the present day climate change and global warming.

Trade of NTFPs plays a significant role in the economy of the country. NTFPs are being exported to India as 'Jariibuti' (raw materials for medicines, spices, perfumes etc). These raw materials include fruits, roots, barks and herbs to produce chemicals, herbal extracts, oils etc. There are limited markets locally, very little value is added and official records are insignificant (Aryal, 1993)



What actions do you propose?

Data collection:

a.      Sampling:

Out of all the houses in the selected three VDCs of Panchase, 10% households will be sampled by random sampling using lottery system. For it, all the houses are considered the universe for social survey. 

b.      Social survey:

Semi-structured questionnaires will be prepared and used to collect information related to NTFPs used, their distribution, harvesting and efforts for sustainability.

To find out the uses of NTFPs, questionnaires will contain the space for the types of NTFPs used in their households and sold to get income. If they are used in village what the uses they have will be obtained. At the same time the locality of their occurrence will be obtained easily. Harvesting techniques are based on the practice of the local people.

To get economic benefit from the NTFPs, the NTFP used in households will be obtained in Kilograms. Its cost price will also be known from local traders or the practitioners (e.g. local healers). Thus the economic valuation will be determined easily.

c.       Transect survey:

Researchers will collect information and herbarium specimens from the plants along the transect walks devised specially for abundance and distribution of NTFPs along different environmental mo through the village forest areas in Panchase following Kent and Coker (1998).

d.      GIS and Remote Sensing:

Geographic system and Remote sensing will be used for spatial data collection so that quantification of NTFPs in these three VDCs of inner core areas of Panchase will be easier. The data available will be compared with previous data are available. Otherwise data obtained will be compared with from Manang, Jumla and that will be obtained by the study at the last field visit (second time).


Data analyses:

The crude data will be manipulated and presented in tabular form. They are presented in graphs before prediction of the result. Statistical package SPSS will be used to analyze the data.

In documentation, NTFPs in practice will be named locally, scientifically and their uses will be presented but in economic valuation, the amount of NTFPs consumed in villages, exported outside will be estimated as suggested in questionnaire survey. Thus total income from the NTFPs will be predicted from specific to general as in inductive researches

Who will take these actions?

Team lead by Mr hom nath Pathak ill take this action.

Where will these actions be taken?

Study Area:

                                    fig: the study area

The present study site is Bhadaure-Tamagi VDC of Panchase Protected Area in central Nepal. Panchase comprises 17 VDCs of Kaski, Parbat and Syangja districts that cover total of 27.91 sq km area. It is located in middle mountain physiographic region of Nepal. The terrestrial ecosystem of Panchase consists of slopes on all directions contains forest, grazing pastures and agricultural land. There is human settlement in the hills around and valley below. Valley bottom also contains aquatic and wetland ecosystems. Wetland is represented by marshy and swampy lands by the stream bed. The Panchase area lies in subtropical, warm temperate and cold temperate climatic zones with sufficient altitudinal variations and orographic rainfall pattern. There was average rainfall of 473 mm in pre-monsoon season, 3336 mm in the monsoon season, 171 mm in post monsoon season and 82 mm in the winter over the period of 25 years (1985-2010). The annual mean temperature ranges between 20-25˚C.

Topographically, Panchase has elevation between 500 m to 2500m. Human settlements are situated on the middle to lower part of the Panchase hill. Based on the census of 2011, the estimated population of Panchase area is 62,001 (27,406 male and 34,595 female).

This place is important ecologically because the study of UNEP for ecosystem based adaptation is focused on this area. 

How much will emissions be reduced or sequestered vs. business as usual levels?

What are other key benefits?

  1. NTFPs will be documented.
  2. Income from NTFPs will be measured.
  3. Role of NTFPs on climate change will be measured.

What are the proposal’s costs?



Fields of Expenditure


Amounts (US$)


Field visits (Three field visits for data collection, herbarium preparation, social survey and group discussion)


A research assistants

and a porter

Travel allowances


 60 days@70

60 days@70

10 days@70








Photography and stationary

Plastic bags, gloves, masks, plant cutters, herbarium press, blotting papers etc





Ecological tools

Altimeter, clinometers, compass, measuring tapes etc      




Report preparation

Printing and photocopy




Binding and submission







Time line

  • Literature survey and preparation for field work (July 2016)
  • field visit. (Jul-Oct,2016)
  • Data collection (Oct,2016-Jan, 2017)
  • Report preparation (Jan- May,2018)

Related proposals



Aryal  M (1993): Diverted wealth; the Trade in Himalayan Herbs. In: Himal (Jan/ Feb, 1993), Ed K.M. Dixit: 9-19

Bhattarai NK (1987): Traditional Pharmaceutical Practice in central Nepal. J. Nep. Pharm. Assoc. 14 (1,2):15-31.

DFRS (2013) Ecosystems And Ecosystem Services of Panchase: An Overview, Based on Baseline and Socio-Economic Survey Conducted by Eba, Project Management Unit, Forestry Complex, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal (Pub).

Edwards  DM(1993): The Marketing 0f Non Timber Forest Products from the Himalaya: The Trade Between East Nepal and India. (Rural Development Forestry Network Paper, 15b. London, Overseas Development Inst.) 24p.

Ghimire SK, Sapkota IB, Oli BR, and Parajuli RR (2010) Non Timber Forest Products of Nepal Himalaya. Databases of Some important Species Found in the Mountain Protected Areas and Surrounding Regions, WWF Nepal.

Hammet  AL (1994) Non Timber Forest Products' Markets. In:  Raintree, J.B; Francisco, H.A. Eds. Marketing of Multipurpose Tree Products in Asia: Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. 349-352pp.

Jacobs, M (1984): The Study of Non-Timber Forest Products. In: Hanks, J. Ed. Traditional Life Styles, Conservation and Rural Development: Proceedings of Symposium Held on 4-5 Oct 1982 at Bangdung.

Kent M and Coker P (1998) Vegetaion Description and Analysis: A practical approach. John Willey and sons, Chischetor, New York  (Pub.).

Lama YC, Ghimire SK, and Thomas YA (2001) Medicinal Plants of Dolpo: Amchies Knowledge on Conservation. WWF Nepal Program, Kathmandu, Nepal. Pp 150

Lecup, I. (1994) The Role of Marketing of Non Timber Forest Products in Community Development Projects: Aurvedic Medicinal Plants in Nepal. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development.

Malla SB and Shakya PR (1994): Medicinal plants. In: Nepal nature's paradise. Ed T.C Majupuria: 261-297.

Manandhar NP ( 2002) Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press Inc., Portland, Oregon, USA.

Manandhar NP(1980): Medicinal plants of Nepal Himalaya. Ratna Pustak  Bhandar, Kathmandu.

Pathak, H.N (2010) Documentation of Non Timber Forest Products Used in Paiyunpata Village, Baglung, Nepal. Proceedings of National Seminar on Sustainable Use of Biological Resources  in Nepal, held at Pokhara, Apr 22-23, 2007 Ecological Society (ECOS), Kathmandu, Nepal.

Peters M (1994) Sustainable Harvest of Non Timber Forest Plant Resources in Tropical Moist Forest: An Ecological Primer. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington DC, USA.

Teewari  DN (1993): Non timber forest products in poverty alleviation. The Indian Forester. 119(12):956-965pp.

Walter S (1998) The Utilization of Non Timber forest Products in the Rainforest of Medagaskar: A Case Study. Plant Research and Development, 47/48: 121-144.