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Miniaturised, cheap guided missiles absorb beamed energy, speed through a vacuum; colliding with a target for impact fusion for electricity.


Description

Summary

From its emergence, humanity has relied upon thermonuclear fusion (TF) for warmth, light and subsequently, nutrition (food) through photosynthesis. Sol, our sun is our closest net energy exporting (NEE) TF reactor and is located approximately 150 million kilometers away from Earth. It is generally accepted that within the last century, humanity has learned to replicate TF with a "hydrogen bomb" (H-bomb) by producing, pressurizing and confining extremely hot hydrogen under the conditions of an "atomic bomb trigger" (Uranium or Plutonium fission bomb) implosion or explosion. However, sustainable, exploitable NEE TF has not been achieved for electricity production and remains a hot research topic in light of the impending energy and climatological crisis. 

Existing fusion experiments ranging from inertial electrostatic or magnetic confinement of hydrogenic plasma (hot electrically-conducting gas), to inertial confinement by isotropic electromagnetic (EM) irradiation of a hydrogenic pellet, have thus far been unable to benignly and sustainably reproduce the brief destructive success of a H-bomb explosion. 

In the summer of 1979 [1], a multidisciplinary ensemble of scientists collaborated to explore the feasibility of thermonuclear impact fusion (TIF). TIF proposes the acceleration of a projectile (like a bullet) to hypervelocities to impact upon a target. The projectile's range of data are as follows: Mass (0.05 to 8) grams, composition (aluminium or copper), velocity (50 to 200) kilometres per second, flight path distance (14.3 to 1430) metres, input kinetic energy (1 to 10) Mega Joules. The target comprises nuclear fusion fuel and upon impact, the input kinetic energy is transformed into projectile and target impact site internal energy [2]. Work is done to compress the projectile and target which results in TF. 

Simply put: If TIF is achieved, then water can be electrolyzed to release hydrogen - which can be used as a fuel to supply all of humanity's energy requirements


Category of the action

Reducing emissions from electric power sector.


What actions do you propose?

Notice to the Judges:

It should be noted that the Second Quaw-Salvidio Fusor Concept (QSF II) for the present proposal and TEEU for "​DARK SOLAR technology applications; infrared and ICE replacing FIRE and smoke!" by enthalpiq [3], differ in that QSF II can release more energy than the generic electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitter can supply due to thermonuclear impact fusion (TIF). QSF II has the option of "direct conversion" so that 100 units of energy fed into the EM emitter can result in 10,000 units [1] of energy released from thermonuclear impact fusion. Conversely TEEU will inherently release less energy than the specifically-defined infra-red primary source, in which 100 units of thermal energy radiated may be converted into 52[3] to 58[4] units of electrical energy. Additionally, QSF II uses a complex but cheap, multi-component guided missile which is evident by the missile's acceleration towards the EM source, and its remote stabilizing features granted it by permanent electric and magnetic dipole moments. On the other hand, TEEU ice crystals are simple in structure and accelerate away from the EM source. Also, crucially, QSF II's missile concentrates incident EM radiation to expel plasma, whereas TEEU incident radiation is not concentrated to an intensity that can produce plasma; only gas. QSF II 2012 patent pending application (GB1201159.9) was initially filed prior to TEEU 2015 patent application (GB1514351.4) which has undergone a search by the United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office (IPO) and has found to be novel. Since the two patents are distinctly filed with one near the grant stage and the other stated to be novel at the search stage; then logically, both are independently novel.

Grant of patent

 

Insert (i) above shows the United Kingdom's Intellectual Property Office (UK IPO) grant of patent. Therefore QSF II patent application filed in 2012 must logically be novel and distinct from TEEU patent application. Hence the two proposals within the same contest are distinct.  

In 2010 Mr Ascanio Salvidio approached Dr Dimoir Quaw to assess the feasibility of proposed fusion technology. In 2016, QSF II is herein proposed.

Adoption of physical actions:

The implementation of QSF II to supply electrical power to humanity and end the requirement for fossil fuel combustion for electricity, heating and automobile transport;

 

The central operating principles of the 2011 patent initially filed GB1116356.5 and its subsequent patent applications are outlined in the six figures.

Insert (ii) above depicts six figures outlining the physics of Guided Fusion Missile (GFM) propulsion

QSF II is implemented by releasing a dart or guided fusion missile (GFM; see Insert (ii) figure 1 above)* in an an evacuated tube. EM radiation of the required frequency* travels towards the nose of the GFM as depicted in figure 2 of the same insert. The EM wave propagates with maximum intensity through the evacuated space, without causing dielectric breakdown of said medium. This allows the energy to be transmitted from a source to the GFM with the minimum of absorption. The GFM has a fixed or "permanent" magnetic dipole moment (M) and electric dipole moment (p) which exist in the GFM prior to illumination and are mutually perpendicular to each other and the intended axis of flight. 

Figure 3 of the same insert shows that the GFM absorbs the illuminating EM radiation energy and intensifies the "power flowing through a given area" (Poynting vector). The intensification mechanism* is crucial because when the EM energy is converted to heat energy (as depicted by figure 4 of the same insert), the temperature of the plasma (ionised gas) produced depends upon the intensity of the power flow through the GFM. To reiterate, power from the EM radiation source is beamed to the GFM surface and concentrated or focused onto a small area within the GSM interior* to produce superheated exhaust gas for (miniature) rocket propulsion. The temperature of the plasma affords it with an exhaust velocity comparable to the projectile hypervelocity as required by the aforementioned Impact Fusion Proceedings [1]. Hence, if a significant fraction of the GFM mass has been vaporized and ionized into plasma, then the remnant of the GFM can also be accelerated by recoil to hypervelocity reaching speeds in excess of 200 kilometers per second (km/s) according to Tsiolkovsky's rocket[5,6] equation.

Figure 5 of the same insert depicts the EM wave pulse magnetic (H) field component apply torque to the GFM magnetic dipole moment (M) stabilizer to correct any disorientation from the desired propagation axis that may have occurred during the practical application of thrust. Although symbolically depicted as two oscillatory cycles, the EM pulse is ideally no more than a half period in duration or a half wavelength in length. In other words, only one polarity of the H field is required to re-orient the GFM. The EM wave propagation (Poynting vector direction) axis is identified with the roll axis, the H field axis is the pitch axis. Subsequently the electric (E) field axis is the yaw axis as depicted in figure 6 of the same insert. The H field can stabilize the GFM from unwanted rolling or yawing or both.

Figure 6 depicts the EM wave pulse electric (E) field component apply torque to the GFM electric dipole moment (p) stabilizer to correct any disorientation from the desired propagation axis that may have occurred during the application of thrust in practice. Although symbolically depicted as two oscillatory cycles, the EM pulse is ideally no more than a half period in duration or a half wavelength in length. In other words, only one polarity of the E field is required to re-orient the GFM. The field can stabilize the GFM from unwanted pitching or rolling or both.

As a result of the above measures, the GFM can remotely receive beamed power to provide it with thrust, as well as being stabilized in yaw, pitch and roll axes so as to provide it with sufficient impulse or momentum change. As such, the GFM remnant can attain hypervelocity.

The apparatus of the simplified Second Concept Quaw Salvidio Fusor (QSF II)

Insert (iii) above depicts a figure outlining the apparatus of the simplified Second Concept Quaw Salvidio Fusor (QSF II)

Insert (iii) above introduces the inoperative QSF II which is depicted in operation in insert (iv) below. QSF II comprises an evacuated tube, preferably buried underground with an airlock at the surface. GFM are inserted into the airlock and dropped downwards through the vacuum of the shaft. At the base of the shaft is an EM emitter and above that is an EM radiation transparent hollow cavity target. A heat exchange coil external to the target winds around the target with coolant inlet and outlet emerging at the ground surface. Also, an induction loop is external to the evacuated tube and adjacent to it.

The Second Quaw Salvidio Fusor Concept (QSF II) in its Operative Cycle

Insert (iv) above comprises 8 figures. The first figure (top center) is succeeded in a clockwise direction until the eighth figure which concludes the operational cycle of the Second Quaw Salvidio Fusor Concept (QSF II). Insert (iv) includes features from insert (ii) and insert (iii).  

Insert (iv) figure 1 is a re-drawing of insert (iii). Figure 2 of insert (iv) depicts the GFM drop down from the airlock's exit port with vacuum propagating EM radiation from the emitter intensified within the GFM as depicted in figure 3 of the same insert. Figure 4 of the same insert shows that a hot plasma jet is ejected from the GFM, whose remnant is accelerated by recoil. The GFM is a remotely-powered rocket which may realistically (and in practice) be prone to unwanted deviations in its flight path as is the case for other types of rockets as depicted by figure 5 of the same insert. Figure 6 of the same insert shows that the GFM is also a remotely-controlled rocket which is steered into as straight a path as possible. This allows GFM speed to accumulate in one direction so as to acquire speeds exceeding 200km/s[1].

Figure 7 of the same insert depicts the GFM impact upon the target at hypervelocity, compress, and increase in temperature for TIF. In the event that charged particles are released from fusion, said particles mostly escape upwards into the vacuum. As a result, there is a net upwards current density vector and an associated azimuthal magnetic field which passes through the induction loop. The pulsed nature of the impact-driven detonation and TF reaction, causes a  time-varying magnetic field and induces an electromotive force (EMF) in the inductive loop. Post fusion particle kinetic energy will also be converted into target internal energy and the subsequent temperature rise will allow a transfer of heat energy to the coolant to occur as depicted in Figure 8 of the same insert. The aforementioned EMF pulses may be harvested as the direct conversion to particle kinetic energy to electrical energy. Meanwhile, heat energy from the coolant can be used to drive a turbine and electrical generator as is done for conventional electricity generation. The cycle restarts with figure 1 of the same insert.

Immediate design, testing, construction and proliferation of GSF II for the generation of electrical power will reduce electricity generation, domestic heating and potentially automobile greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to zero. The physical actions to be adopted above will have amongst the fastest and most direct impact on climate change. 

From our experience dealing with government, academic institutions and businesses, the will to actually act on new idealistic policies appears rather weak and shortsighted, so we expect very little from that quarter. Economic incentives ("carrots") can easily appear useful but tend to award organizations for "appearing" to make changes rather than actually doing the hard work of "rolling up their sleeves" and making the changes. The public in general have already evolved their behavioral norms, but are bitterly and unnecessarily disappointed by lack of real effective action from the organizations who are capable of implementing change. In our solution, the human tendency for inertia and complacency is not best overcome by the altruistic aspiration for change, but by the comparably powerful instinct for defense and security.

Despite initial reluctance to do so, and after what is approaching 6 years of research, Dr Quaw has yielded to the experience of Mr Ascanio Salvidio's (financier) instincts to approach the military. Mr Salvidio initially predicted a fusor operable on board a ship would be a great initial platform for a technology demonstrator and with GFM flight range of 14.3m, this is certainly feasible. Having finally acquired the blessing of the United Kindom's Ministry of Defence (UK MoD), Dr Quaw and Mr Ascanio Salvidio intend to approach the United States (US) Military to develop the concept into a prototype. In time, the technology will trickle down upon declassification and reach the risk averse companies who at this stage of development are myopically unwilling to invest. Similarly, in our experience, universities and academic institutions may open QSF II up as a topic for research but are notorious for their inability to get a product on the market and to make QSF II proliferation attractive to its designers and end-users alike. However the US Navy with its nuclear fission reactor powered vessels and existing developed EM launcher (rail-gun) [7,8], would see obvious advantages in developing a type of "rail-less rail gun" which uses seawater for fuel and produces material byproducts that are radioactive for periods that are orders of magnitudes shorter than nuclear fission waste; thereby reducing the cost of safe disposal. 

No longer will heavy radioactive elements need to be mined for nuclear power from foreign countries, causing birth defects [9,10] in the population and international political unrest. The movement of nuclear fission material can be controlled as it will no longer have such a large demand for civilian use.

The asterisk (*) denote detailed proprietary information. For interested (and interesting) enquiries, please contact proposal authors


Who will take these actions?

As indicated in the previous section, the key actors for development of a nuclear fusion device would be the United States (US) Military or Department of Energy (DoE). Historically, they have carried out preliminary research in nuclear fusion. Such bodies have experience in handling radioctive materials should the Quaw Salvidio Fusor Second Concept (QSF II) be able to accelerate the guided fusion missile (GFM) to the required speeds. Should QSF II GFM flight range be 14.3metres (m), then the US Navy would be an obvious developer. If the flight range turns out to be 143m then perhaps GFM flight axis must be parallel to the roll axis of the naval vessel, running from bow to stern. A 14.3m or 143m, range QSF II (model QSF II 143m) could be employed or assembled in an foreign or domestic army base. 

If the research shows that a 1430m fange QSF II is the only feasible option, it can be set up in a domestic (US) installation to generate power for the base and perhaps export electricity to the grid or a local town. Information found prejudicial to national security may be retained whilst the more benign technology can be outsourced to the commercial energy supply sector on international license since intellectual property right (IPR) will be shared between Quaw Salvidio Fusors (QSF) and the military or DoE. Manufacturing techniques and computer programming required to guide the GFM remotely will be proprietary information to be fiercely guarded for whatever spin-off company arises from QSF-US body collaboration.

The top-down approach is favoured because the large companies who provide machinery to generate electrical power will have their appetites whetted by the prospect of supplying electricity to a global market. The GFM has mass restrictions and so the hydrocarbon industry will have a new role in GFM manufacture* although their demand is anticipated to be heavily skewed away from power generation and more towards the ever-growing aviation and small scale marine sectors.


Where will these actions be taken?

Primarily for reasons stated above, the actions will be implemented in either of the following places: England (within the European Union) or in the United States of America (USA). For security concerns, an Anglo-American project seems like the natural choice in light of the "special relationship". 

The circle of collaborators will extend to France. She has a strong dependence upon nuclear energy and her uranium mining in Niger, Africa has been documented to cause birth defects in animal life. This impoverishes and diminishes the health of Africans [9,10] to supply Europeans electricity and causes grievances in developing nations. Therefore a security risk materializes against developed world interests.

In general and primarily, all nuclear fission reactors must be replaced by QSF II reactors worldwide. An emphasis must be placed on providing high security risk regions like the Middle East, Southern Asia, North West and East Africa with safer deuterium or tritium fuel which cannot on its own be used to make a nuclear reaction driven bomb. The mining of uranium and plutonium globally can be restricted as there will be a vastly reduced legitimate demand for its benign use.  

QSF II usage is only restricted from regions which are prone to earthquakes such as the case of Fukushima, Japan [11,12]. The threat being the dispersal of radioactive materials rather than a reactor meltdown. For this reason, QSF II target is underground so as to provide an artificial geothermal resource from the radioactive target should an earthquake render the QSF II device inoperable.

Also, the developed countries such as the European Union (EU), USA, China and Russia can host numerous QSF II units due to their technical expertise whilst exporting electricity to developing nations initially. Eventually, global market saturation and 14.3metre (m) flight range QSF II units may be installed in developing nations affording them a degree of energy independence if heavy water electrolysis is accessible


How much will emissions be reduced or sequestered vs. business as usual levels?

Full energy market saturation of the Second Concept Quaw Salvidio Fusor (QSF II) will result in zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electrical power generation, heating and automobile transport. Full QSF II energy market saturation may allow energy surplus to even capture and store GHGs that are already present in the atmosphere. 

By 2027 to 2028, it is anticipated one operational QSF II will be supplying electricity to the power grid from a United States (US) military base or on board a US naval vessel. For mainly strategic reasons, European Union (EU) military bases and naval vessels will follow suit predictably in Germany and eventually in the United Kingdom (UK). After declassification, large companies will produce land-base QSF II installations or units. By 2040 all (17,500 to 20,000) [3] Megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent GHG emissions predicted in the business as usual scenario can be reduced to zero or less with commercially-driven energy & carbon-capture sector growth


What are other key benefits?

Quaw Salvidio Fusor Second Concept (QSF II) target is small; allowing greater heating power density and temperature than TOKOMAK.

Tighter control over the movement of nuclear fission material due to their obsolescence. Unsavory entities cannot acquire fissile material under the pretense of benign nuclear power aspirations whilst clandestinely constructing an atomic weapon arsenal when cleaner and cheaper nuclear fusion is available.

Safe storage of nuclear fusion waste is orders of magnitude shorter than the like storage of nuclear fission waste; vastly, reducing cost and nuclear waste legacy for future generations.

Since the hydrogen bomb can only presently be triggered by an atomic bomb explosion, then the severe restriction of uranium and plutonium accessibility will also reduce thermonuclear weapon proliferation.

There is an abundance of deuterium (one part in every 6,700[13,14] parts of hydrogen found in seawater) & QSF II allows for the opportunity to breed tritium within the target.


What are the proposal’s costs?

The Second Concept Quaw Salvidio Fusor (QSF II) permanent apparatus explicitly depicted in the present proposal has an economic cost upwards of $2,089.44 (Two thousand, eighty nine United States {US} Dollars and forty cents) on 15th May 2016 [15,16] economic conditions. Said apparatus will initially exclude the induction loop and heat exchanger.

Infrastructure costs pertaining to rent of laboratory or test facility space, time, power supplies, control and measurement equipment as well as electricity, heating and water usage costs can be covered by an intellectual property right (IPR) sharing or licensing agreement. The drag-free, electric and magnetic dipole moment stabilized missile guidance algorithms (IPR), can be used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to eliminate space-debris or other space-borne objects.    

Sacrificial components such as the guided fusion missile (GFM) and target* will be financed by loans. That is to say a loan to acquire warhead and target material will be repaid from the revenue acquired from the sale of produced tritium by neutron absorption in said target.

Finally, when thermonuclear fusion (TF) is be reliably repeated with exploitable net energy gain (by an "above break-even" reactor rather than a just a "prolific neutron generator"), then the QSF II apparatus will be upgraded, with induction loop and heat exchanging coil added. The heat-exchanger will power a turbine, coupled to a compressor whose admitted mass flow rate can evacuate the QSF II acceleration chamber for frequent GFM flight and target impact cycles (see insert iv, figure 1 to figure 8 inclusive). At this time, QSF II will profitably be exporting electricity to the consuming market.

Above: Economic cost is mitigated by commercializing outputs.

As with all nuclear reactors, background radioactivity is anticipated to increase with reactor operation. Despite this, radioactive waste from QSF II will become safe, orders of magnitude sooner than for an analogous fission reactor.


Time line

Second Concept Quaw-Salvidio Fusor (QSF II) Timeline

Short term (5-15) years:

QSF II apparatus such as electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitter, acceleration chamber and guided fusion missile (GFM) are manufactured for atmospheric testing. The EM emitter transmits energy with increasing intensity up to a maximum value, towards the static (clamped down on a thrust stand or balance) GFM. Energy transfer efficiency is measured and maximized. Thrust is also maximized. Thrusting duration and thermal transfer mechanisms to preserve warhead, thrusting mechanism and magnetic and electric dipole stabilizers are optimized to coincide with the anticipated flight duration of the GFM (0.014s minimum): Year 0 to year 2. 

QSF II acceleration chamber evacuated and GFM released for illumination, thrusting and acceleration as depicted in insert ii. Flight stability considered with EM emitter and magnetic and electric stabilizers tested to achieve quasi-unidirectional flight and thereby realize GFM required thermonuclear impact fusion (TIF) terminal velocity. Achieved or not, the guidance algorithms are of military value so long as the GFM is the fastest known guided missile: Year 1 to year 5.

Depending on investor good will, research output proximity to milestones or commercial enterprise; further testing and development continues. If not already achieved by the 5th year, funding continues until the 200 kilometer per second (km/s) goal is met. According to a recent republication [1,2], magnetization can reduce the required GFM terminal velocity to 50km/s for TIF to be realized: Year 5 to year 11 inclusive.

A prolific neutron generator (breeding tritium) or a net exploitable gain thermonuclear fusion reactor (producing electricity is envisaged). The goal is achieved: Year 12 onwards.

 

Medium term (15-50 years):

QSF II replaces all fossil fuel and nuclear fission power plants worldwide.

 

Long term (50-100 years):

Remaining combustion-driven power plants (typically biomass & automobile) are replaced


Related proposals

Proposal for Transportation by Eco Inventions: Electric Vehicles With a 5 Min charging Hybrid Graphene EESD and LENR Vehicles. This proposes that a "super car will have a range of about 500 km's or more", mentions heavier vehicles such as a "Electric 18 Wheel Semi Truck" and also aircraft (although at present, electrically powered aircraft cannot outperform jet aircraft in terms of lift and thrust). The abundant and vast energy offered by the Second Concept Quaw Salvidio Fusor (QSF II) will not only make fossil fuel and nuclear fission power plants obsolete, it will make fossil-fuelled cars redundant also.

The proposal for Energy Water Nexus by Net Zero Foundation: Net Zero Energy -- The 100% Energy-Water Nexus Solution states that "industrial age electric production system also consumes a huge quantity of fresh water." QSF II proposes the direct conversion of post fusion charged particle kinetic energy into electrical power. As such, water usage for electricity generation is minimized.


References

[1] Proceedings of the Impact Fusion Workshop : National Security & Resources Study Center, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 10-12, 1979

[2] The Release of Thermonuclear Energy by Inertial Confinement: Ways Towards Ignition, Friedwardt Winterberg, World Scientific, 2010

[3] https://www.climatecolab.org/contests/2015/energy-supply/c/proposal/1316801/tab/EVALUATION

[4]

[5] http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/FALL/thermodynamics/notes/node103.html

[6]https://spaceflightsystems.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/rktpow.html

[7]http://www.onr.navy.mil/media-center/fact-sheets/electromagnetic-railgun.aspx

[8]https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2015/02/06/the-pentagons-electromagnetic-rail-gun-makes-its-public-debut

[9] http://www.aefjn.org/index.php/369/articles/let-there-be-light-areva-in-niger.html

[10]http://www.ejolt.org/2015/07/arevas-uranium-mines-niger

[11]http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/fukushima-accident.aspx

[12]http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/09/japanese-court-orders-closure-of-two-nuclear-reactors

[13]https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/fusion-energy-future

[14] Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos: Hydrogen to Gallium, Donald Clayton, Cambridge University Press, 2003

[15]http://www.x-rates.com

[16]http://www.xe.com