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Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy


Description

Summary

Transportation fuel is projected to be a leading source of increases in greenhouse gas emissions through 2050, contributing to climate change. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, we must find solutions that are broadly sustainable. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be used in any diesel powered vehicle, it is biodegradable and non-toxic and  a fantastic way of reducing our carbon footprint as it only releases the carbon dioxide that the plants absorbed whilst growing, therefore there is no negative impact on the carbon cycle. On the otherhand , as corn is commonly used as feed for livestock, higher corn prices lead to higher prices in animal source foods . Vegetable oil is used to make biodiesel and has about doubled in price in the last couple years. Reports in 2007 linked stories as diverse as food riots in Mexico due to rising prices of corn for tortillas  .Thatswhy to reduce our carbon footprint aswellas worldwide hunger i choose 4R (Waste Energy Techniques)Poverty and pollution free  EcofriendlyRiceBran Biodiesel.

It  will  help  to create local economic revitalization and local environmental benefits.IT is  cost effective because  of domestic  production  and  feedstock from  agriculture residues.It  will establish  a WIN-WIN Situation - A win-win situation is one in which all the participants can profit from it in one way or the other. For instance here the RBBiodiesel Producer and the Farmers can both earn profit and continue to operate in a successful market with the flexibility of feedstock( Agriculture Residues). Hence it  will lead to A WIN - WINSITUATION for all the participants in the industry Grown, Produced and Distributed Locally.  Nearly every country in the world depends on imports of various forms of fossil fuel energy, including oil, coal and natural gas.  RBBiodiesel can improve energy security wherever it is produced in several ways: Local Agricultural Residues  


What actions do you propose?

First we’ve to see ‘’How Biodiesel Policies Affected Markets’’

The impact of US biodiesel policies early on depended on their interaction with Canadian and EU biodiesel policies (de Gorter, Drabik, & Just, 2011). US biodiesel production was essentially zero until 2004 and then increased sharply from 2005-2008, when US biodiesel exporters became eligible to receive a $1/gallon tax credit for the biodiesel fuel they exported, even when they simply added small amounts of diesel to much larger amounts of biodiesel (“splash and dash”). Some of the biodiesel was imported from other countries, such as palm oil from Malaysia. This tax credit helped raise the US price of biodiesel by making exports to the European Union more profitable, thereby increasing the price of soybeans and also the corn price, as land is taken out of corn and used in soybean production.

But US biodiesel production (and domestic prices) fell sharply in June 2008 with the initiation of the EU anti-dumping/countervailing duty investigation of the ‘splash & dash’ practice. US biodiesel prices and production plunged because the tax credit had acted as a biodiesel production subsidy (even though it was a biodiesel consumption subsidy) when biodiesel prices were determined outside the United States (de Gorter et al., 2011). The US tax credit was still valid but no longer able to keep prices at historical levels. US biodiesel prices stabilized after the duties were implemented in March 2009. The US-EU biodiesel price gap, which had widened sharply in 2008, stayed so until the US biodiesel mandate was finally enforced and so became binding in mid-2010. After mid-2010, US biodiesel prices and production have since increased sharply: current prices are just under $5/gallon (June 2012), well above what prices would be if the only US biodiesel policy were the $1/gallon tax credit. In fact, the expiration of the biodiesel tax credit at the end of 2011 has had little effect on US biodiesel prices as the mandate was binding, thus domestic prices were not directly linked to world prices (Brazilian biodiesel policy isolates their biodiesel sector from world markets).

 

 

The major finding of this article is that biofuel policies under environmental and energy legislation in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, led by the United States, drove the unprecedented price spikes in the food grain/oilseed sectors. The sudden price spike was due to two unanticipated events: the US de facto ban on MTBE (Methyl-tert-butylether, a fuel additive that competes with ethanol) and the sudden realization by the market of US ethanol production capacity doubling in 2006 as unprecedented high oil prices activated the long-dormant US ethanol tax credit, creating a direct link between oil and corn prices for the first time (Tyner, 2008). In 2006, cereal and oilseed prices increased sharply, peaking in 2008 and falling precipitously thereafter with the 2008 financial crisis (Figure 1). But these prices regained their 2008 highs in 2011, while corn and oilseeds have reached new highs in 2012. Non-US corn-ethanol production in OECD countries in terms of volume is 50% of US corn-ethanol production; therefore, it is also a significant contributing factor. Because the yield per acre is much lower for biofuel production other than US corn-ethanol, the impact on food prices is therefore expected to be disproportionately higher (e.g., ethanol from wheat in the United Kingdom)

We begin our analysis with US corn-ethanol, as this seems to be the initial biofuel shock to grain-oilseeds markets, although biodiesel production in Europe was taking its toll on wheat stocks (Mitchell, 2008). There was a new and unique role of energy and environmental policies that created a link between biofuel and crop prices. Biofuels policies have had various individual roles in affecting crop prices—varied in magnitude and direction over time—and had particularly nuanced interaction effects with each other and with biofuel policies in the rest of the world (de Gorter & Drabik, 2012a, 2012b; Rausser & de Gorter, 2012). Other countries play an important role as well. We argue that biofuels’ impact on food markets is all due to policy. In other words, absent biofuels policy, biofuel production would not have increased dramatically and food prices would have risen only modestly.

 

Next we’ve to see what about BioenergyActionPlan.pdf; 

Figure 6: Board Ethanol Blends 
Policy Statement 
Alleviating Oil Dependency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on an 
Accelerated Basis Through Biofuels Deployment 
1.Twenty in Ten Initiative-20% in the Next 10 yrs. 
Biofuels Directive 
The EU Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC) sets indicative targets of 2% market penetration by 2005 and 5.75%market penetration by 2010. 

2.CaliforniaBiofuel policy plan 

519Rpdf 
3.Recent biofuel trendsof Biofuel trade & policy 
National biofuels update 
CEC-500-2010-007 pdf!

Deriving effective least cost policy strategies for alternative automative concepts and alternative fuels; 
1.Development Phase; 
2.R and D 
3.Demonstration 
4.Early market 
5.Mass market! 

Production subsidy Policy level: 
National Targeted at: Consumer/Industry Development phase(s): R&D/Early markets Description 
A production subsidy can be granted to provide support for the additional operational cost of a novel, not yet cost competitive energy technology. This reduces the barrier of initial high cost. The production subsidy can be granted as fixed amount for a certain produced amount of energy, e.g. kWh renewable electricity or litre of biodiesel. Subsidies are granted for a number of years, also providing an outlook how the subsidy will develop. A diversified production subsidy that decreases with increased productivity over time provides additional incentives for technical improvements. An advantage is the possibility to adjust the subsidy percentages and to make distinctions between the height of support for different technologies as well as to lower the support over time in case substantial improvements could be reached. Nevertheless, the subsidies should not be adjusted too frequently during the duration as it creates insecurity. 

Key success factors Production; 
subsidies can be highly diversified depending on the technology . 
The subsidy should only cover the additional cost for the innovation part, meaning the gap between the conventional technology and the novel technology Requires monitoring: 
Avoid windfall profits once the technology has reached cost-competitiveness \ s 
Flexibility to adjust subsidy percentages. 
Examples; 
Feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. 
Production bonus for biofuel production 
Links with other policy measures 
R&D subsidy 
Investment subsidy. 

Demonstration subsidy Policy level: 
National Targeted at: Industry Development phase(s): Demonstration 
Description Deployment of a novel technology requires a high degree of initial investment for the purchaser/applicant of the technology. That is usually due to small scale production and not achieved cost competitiveness with the reference technology. To reduce the barrier of high investment cost for a new technology in demonstration projects, a subsidy aimed at covering the capital cost of the project can provide a financial relief for the purchaser/operator. 
Links with other policy measures 
R&D subsidy 
Investment subsidy 
Accelerated depreciation

·         With world energy consumption set to rise by around 40 percent between 2012 and 2030, our energy system is changing fundamentally, making companies’ decisions about fuel more complex and important than ever before. 

While clean and renewable transportation technologies are gaining ground, petroleum will remain the backbone of our useful fuel resources for decades to come. In light of this, companies must make smarter decisions about their current choices among fuels, which often will be choices within fossil fuels. 

Increasingly, energy resources are being tapped from unconventional sources—from the Arctic’s icy frontier to the abundant U.S. shale once thought too difficult to extract—creating more pressing climate, human rights, and other sustainability challenges. Yet, until now, companies have not had an authoritative resource to weigh the sustainability trade-offs of their current fuel decisions. 

BSR’s Future of Fuels is filling that gap. This ambitious initiative—with leading experts from the private, nonprofit, public, and academic sectors—will help global companies understand the greatest sustainability impacts of their transportation fuel system, and what they can do about them

 

Technology and policy options for mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions from  Transport Sectors;

With careful planning, appropriate incentives, and development and spread of advanced technologies, these goals can be met in ways that also help to reduce risk of climate change, the biggest long-term challenge in relation to energy use.

Firstly,Society needs to find ways to limit global warming to around 2°C, thereby reducing the risk of most serious consequences of climate change. Policies to achieve this should be political priority, especially in industrialized countries

Secondly, The needed transformations in patterns of power generation and energy use are very great (eg, around 90% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in UK), and they will require major policy initiatives and legal, fiscal, economic, and other measures to achieve. Policies to reduce human population growth and livestock production could also have an important role in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.

Thirdly,  There is no shortage of technological options and practices that would enable the world to enjoy the benefits of using energy while moving to an energy system with low emissions of greenhouse gases. The world's energy needs could eventually be met several times over by such energy resources, and through improving efficiency in energy consumption and use.

  Forthly,There are imperative to transfer technology to less developed countries to ensure their urgent health and development needs can be met without further contributing to adverse health and environmental effects at local and global levels.

Finally, The challenge faced by society in moving to cleaner, healthier, more sustainable patterns of energy use is comparable to great public-health challenges of earlier generations, and its successful achievement will require bold and visionary leadership, which we predict would result in substantial benefits to global health both in the short and long terms.

 


Who will take these actions?

When it comes to helping the world transition to a low-carbon future, developing nations are in a unique position to lead—but they can’t do it alone. Investments are needed. Luckily, the opportunities are promising for climate-savvy investors and companies with operations in the developing world.

In developing countries, low-carbon investments, such as those in energy-efficiency upgrades and low-carbon transportation, can open new markets for clean technologies and sustainable products while reducing pollution in local communities, ensuring energy and food independence by supporting local and distributed sources of power and agriculture, and alleviating poverty by providing new job opportunities. Many countries are already taking advantage of these opportunities. Ethiopia, for example, is using a green growth strategy to eradicate poverty and address climate change. To enhance these opportunities, global companies and investors can play a key role.

   In anticipation of new policy priorities that could be set at the United Nations Conference of Parties in Paris in 2015, the international community is poised to invest billions of dollars in clean energy, much of it in developing nations. During the UN Climate Summit 2014 in New York, leaders announced plans to invest more than US$200 billion to finance clean energy and support resilience among vulnerable nations. In its new “Better Growth, Better Climate” report, the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate calls for governments to triple their investments in clean energy research and development. The international community also is increasing financial innovations such as green bonds, feed-in tariffs,  risk-sharing instruments.

There is a strong case for the business community to focus on the developing world when it comes to investments in low-carbon initiatives. Doing so will not only serve the companies’ business interests, but also will help pave the way to the “cleaner, greener, more prosperous future for all


Where will these actions be taken?

WorldWide.


How much will emissions be reduced or sequestered vs. business as usual levels?

Reducing our Carbon Footprint With Biodiesel & RBBiodiesel;

Springboard Biodiesel, LLC. spends a lot of time thinking about ways to reduce our carbon footprint. What we’ve discovered is that using biodiesel in our diesel engines is far and away the most dramatic and efficient way to shrink and accomplish our goal.

Now, Califonia’s Air Resource Board will also tell us that if we make biodiesel from waste vegetable oil then we will actually reduce our carbon emissions by 90%.

Well, given that diesel #2 is known to spew 22.3 pounds of CO2 per gallon, if we  substitute 1 gallon of B-100, made from recycled veg. oil for 1 gallon of diesel # 2 we will save 19.6 pounds of CO2 from contributing to the warming of our planet. If  we use virgin soybean oil, we’ll only save 17.3 pounds&  700+ BioPro™ biodiesel processors represent over 5MM gallons of annual production capacity, which means that we could potentially be assisting with the extraction or abatement of over 96MM pounds of CO2 annually


What are other key benefits?

Key benefits; Easy to use, excellent lubricity Grown, Produced and Distributed Locally & Internationally, local Agricultural Residues,

Safe and Stable Fuel, Toxicity, Biodegradability, Safety and Recycling – . All these attributes makeRB biodiesel less harmful to the environment, Creation of more employment, Jobs created for feedstock farming and/or collection, Skilled jobs created for biodiesel production and distribution.(Engineers, Technicians etc), Tax Benefits, Generation of Income for the local feedstock producers andrefiners, Hence it leads to A WIN - WINSITUATION for all the participants in the industry. significantly curb GHG Emissions(90%Carbonfootprint reduction &96MM pounds of CO2 annually), reduce our reliance oncrude oil, and encourage energy diversity and reduce Worldwide Huger


What are the proposal’s costs?

Project Development path;

a)Initial Project Development Activities;

1.Business Concept

2.Business Formation

3.Feasibility Study

4.Raise Seed Equity to fund Development efforts

 

B)Develop the Project

1.Business Plan

2.Select Site

3.Technology

4.project permit

5.Legal

6.Accounting

C.Negotiate Contracts;

Engineering procurement

1.EPE contract

2.Official /Marketing

3.Feedstock

4.Utilities

5.Transportation

6.Risk Mitigation

 

D.Fund The Project;

1.Equity

2.Debt

3.Financial Close

4.Raise Equity

5.Secure Debt Financing

E.Execute the Project;Secure Debt,Financial Close & Execute the project

1.Engineering Procurement and Construction

2.Startup

3.Commercial Operation

 

Business Plan;

1.Executive Summary

2.Management Plan

3.Market Analysis

4.Marketing Plan

5.Feedstock Supply Plan

6.Operation Plan

7.Risk Management Plan

8.Financial Plan allow  for adequate working capital

9.Projected Financial Performance.

Contact experienced permitting consultant  for Project Permits.

Require an offtake contract.Biofuel plants typically donot sell product directly to petroleum companies,a marketing company negotiates sales& hlandles transportation logistics.Marketing companies provide more negotiating power and better freight rates through large volume sales.

 

 

Select Site;

EPEC Contract or Design /Build;Consider Experience and Qualification

Marketing/Offtake Agreements

Feedstock Supply

 Develop Utilities ,Transportation and Risk Management Sites

 For Balance of Equity;Consult an attrony to insure me comply with SEC regulation

2.Develop Prospectus to raise the balance of Equity

3.Share Structure and Pricing can impact investors interest in the project.

4.Consult an attorney to insure me comply with SEC regulation

Hire an attorney to insure  comply with SEC regulation

Debt Financing;

1.Develop Project

2.Great project team with experienced team,good technology site.

 

Engineering ,Construction & StartUP

Biofuel Life Cycle;

Residue Feedstock-Transportation- Biorefinery- Processing and Conversation- Distribution-EndUsers.

 

It means huge process,need 75lacks BDT.

 

 

 


Time line

Project Development path;

 

Organise Board , Strong management & project team with industry experience, Hire Permitting Consultant,EPC  contractor Enlist the help from experienced project development firms

2.Secure Seed  Money

3.Feasbility Study

4.Secure project Development Funds

5.Business  Plan

6.Prospectus

7.Raise Equity

8.Secure Debt Financing

9. Construction and Startup

Biofuel Life Cycle;

Residue Feedstock-Transportation- Biorefinery- Processing & Conversation- Distribution-EndUsers.

 

Enlist the help from experienced project development firms.

Build a project team based on experience and success in the field we  are entering.

Surround with best suppliers and services

Hire best people with best experience with ; plant management

Project developer, feedstock experience, product market, legal counsel, Accounting CSA, Gas, electric,Water, Rail Company, Permitting Consultant,EPC  contractor.

Require an offtake contract.Biofuel plants typically donot sell product directly to petroleum companies,a marketing company negotiates sales and hlandles transportation logistics.Marketing companies provide more negotiating power and better freight rates through large volume sales.

 

 

Select Site;

EPEC Contract or Design /Build;Consider Experience and Qualification

Marketing/Offtake Agreements

Feedstock Supply

 Develop Utilities ,Transportation and Risk Management Sites

 For Balance of Equity;Consult an attrony to insure me comply with SEC regulation

2.Develop Prospectus to raise the balance of Equity

3.Share Structure and Pricing can impact investors interest in the project.

4.Consult an attorney to insure me comply with SEC regulation

Hire an attorney to insure  comply with SEC regulation

Debt Financing;

1.Develop Project

2.Great project team with experienced team,good technology site

 

Engineering ,Construction and StartUP

 

 

Biofuel Life Cycle;

Residue Feedstock-Transportation- Biorefinery- Processing and Conversation- Distribution-EndUsers.

It means need time 3 to 5 years.

 

 

 


Related proposals

https://www.indiegogo.com/campaigns/poverty-and-pollution-free-ecofriendly-biodiesel-for-sustainable-earth/edit#/?tab=extras

http://climate.diplomacy.edu/profiles/blogs/sustanable-energy-for-sutainable-earth

 

 

https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/members/mahfujaparven1/

Mahfuja Parven

Social Entrepreneur, Poverty and Pollution Free Ecofriendly RiceBran Biodiesel

Poverty and Pollution Free RiceBran Biodiesel

http://opprtunity.com/r/XFFsx1e

https://weadapt.org/

https://weadapt.org/member/parvenbd

GIST, Energy Globe Awards.

http://www.pinterest.com/mahfujap


References

References

1.    (http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/072009lcfs_uco_bd.pdf)

2.    Pdf biofuelaction plan

3.With more investment ,the Developing world can lead the way to a low carbon future.

·         http://www.bsr.org/en/our-insights/blog-view/with-more-investment-the-developing-world-can-lead-the-way-to-a-low-carbon

and BBI webinar and Biodiesel Magazine, Leonardo Energy Webinar, Courses.

 

4. . Bridging  the Gap between climate science and sustainable business

http://www.bsr.org/en/our-insights/blog-view/bsrs-climate-science-initiative;

5. DISCUSSION PAPER ON THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S ENERGY UNION - A UNION BASED ON DEMAND

By Paul Waide

·          6. Introduction to Climate changefom UNFCCC

·         7.Energy Management Foundation Training

·         8.Technology of Renewable Energy

·         9.Economic Regulation of Electric Utilities

·         10.Policy and Regulatory Frame Work

·         11.Policy areas in electricity and heat supply sector

·         12.Other options for electricity

·         13.Enabling environment for electricity and heat supply sector

 

 

 

14..Climate Changes by Kenneth M.Strzepek and Joel.B.Smith

15.Sustainable Earth by Taylor

16.Climate Change-The Symptoms-The Science-The Solutions by James lovelock

17.Weather and Climate by Laure Chemery

18.Waste,Recycling and Reuse-Our Impact on the Planet by Rob Bowden

19..Health and Environment

Impact Assessment (British Medical Association)

20.Waste Teatment and Disposal by Paul-T.William ,Professor of Environmental Engineering,The University of Leeds

21.Global Warming by John Houghton

22.Environmental Chemistry by Colin Baird

23.The Road to Zero Emissions by Gunter Pauli

24..Health and Diseases in developing Countries by Karis Lanknen, Staffon Bengster

25.Climate Change 2001-Mitigation by Bert Matz,Ogunlade Davidson.Rob Swart,Jiahua Pan.

26.Climate Change-William James

27.Human Ecology by Gerald G Marten

28.The Carbon Cycle by Martin Redfern

29.FAO at Work 2009-2010(  Growing  Food for Nine Billion)

30.Nutrition and Health –Bangladesh FIVIMS by Dr.Harun K.M.Yusuf

31.Agroeconomic and Social Vulnerability

32.Million Homes Reached with Solar Electricity  by Grameen Shakti

33.Development and Climate Change by WorldBank 2010

34.Paving the way for a Green and Sustainable Future by Abser kamal.

35.The Rough Guide to Climate Change by Robert Henson

36.How can we Save the Earth by Mayer Hillman.

 

 

37.UNFCCC , IEA, EPA, UNDP , ENERGYPEDIA websites.

38. EPA, Pinterest ETC

39.Biofuel Policies and Food Grain Commodity Prices 2006-2012: All Boom and No Bust?

Harry de Gorter, Dusan Drabik, and David R. Just

Cornell University

40. https://lists.iisd.ca/read/?forum=climate-l

CLIMATE-L

41. https://lists.iisd.ca/read/?forum=energy-l

ENERGY-L