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SHAPED uses context, people to identify and map the potential of existing and possibilities for future integrating sustainable aspects with people’s aspirations.



The proposal is to develop a tool for habitat design in Udupi district to identify and map context in four layers as per the following steps

1.     Defining the regional boundary or area of influence for analysis (Kshetra)

2.     Natural context where environment and natural resources are assessed and evaluated for future actions (Desa)

3.     Social and man-made resources invested to develop habitat suitable for activities of society (Loka)

4.     Paradigm and culture that is defining the present and aspirations for the future along with political, social, economic dimensions. (Kala)

Ksetra is defined by natural features, distance and population density in the same order which will define the study area.

Desa is mapping the geographical characteristics and natural resources of existing in the area with quantitative and qualitative aspects using GIS and on ground scanning system.

Loka is defined by space syntax analysis and behavioral studies. Finding the travel behavior, distribution of facilities and correlating all data for finding efficiency and relevance of existing development.

Kala is captured by individual perceptual analysis via sketch map, verbal description, photo identification, space motion analysis. Questionnaires and documentation are done to define social norms, political norms, market trends and legislation in force guiding development activities.

Once the context matrix is fed using ARC GIS, SPACE syntax, Behavior mapping tools and charts,

A final map where the results of various analysis are integrated to give the overall assement of the region facilitating the decision making process. 

Category of the action

Mitigation/Adaptation, Changing public attitudes about climate change

What actions do you propose?

The world today is moving towards rapid urbanization and India is not far behind in this race. However paralelly there have been concerns about sustainability of this development and where all this urbanization would lead. On one hand in India we have Mumbai having 24000 persons per , Delhi has 11,000 persons per Bangalore has 4381 persons per; these metropolitan cities are growing rapidly with complex problems of infrastructure, social disparities, lack of identity, and mismanagement of natural resources. The hinterland around these areas is also being influenced by these towns leading to imbalance in distribution of facilities and resource management. The rigidity of the master plan and lack of facilities in other town leads to migration and the problems of these large cities get aggravated. In the era of virtual reality, progress of information technology and exceptional communication network through mobile, television and internet all over India, it may be time to strengthen the smaller towns and develop them as ideal place to settle with quality infrastructure and good communication facilities. The density of Udupi is just 2000 persons per The expectation of people as per their individual skill sets is to have infrastructure similar to the metros. Though communication facilities are at par and the region has produced entrepreneurs of national and international repute, it lacks supporting physical infrastructure. At the same time the vast human resource and skill sets are migrating due to this drawback and their expectations and requirements need to be addressed to reverse this flow. Instead of looking for a universal solution and absolute design it is more relevant to look at multiple options and localized evolving design creating urban forms. So merging the intent of urban infrastructure development and sustainable urban form, the case of Udupi district has been taken to demonstrate a method rooted to the context yet universal in its principles of development.

 Location and regional context When one talks of environment friendly planning understanding the regional characteristics would be the first step in design. The study focuses on Udupi town of Udupi district, Karnataka state in south India.The coordinates being 13.35°N, 74.75°E, situated 58km to the north of Mangalore, 399.3km west of Bangalore via NH 48, at an altitude of 10m above the mean sea level. Udupi District is flanked by Arabian Sea towards the east, Western Ghats (world heritage site) in the west, five rivers flowing through it. There is one municipality at Udupi, three Taluks-  and 146 Gram Panchayat, with Udupi town being the district headquarters. The district spreads over an area of about 3,582 sq.m. The latest population recorded in the area is 1,177,361 with a density of about 329 persons per and 83.3% literacy as per 2011 census. Though Udupi district is one of the smallest districts of the state it ranks one in sex ratio and 3rd in literacy and 18.60% urbanization rate. The rural population is bigger and growing at a faster rate than urban as the scattered urban knots are coming everywhere and the smaller towns have not been included in the urban definition. This shows the gaining importance of the urban knots in the rural areas. Hence Udupi town is part of regional network of urban infrastructure serving the district. This is the reason why the primary health care, primary educations, bus facilities for transport are very good where both government and private bodies contribute equally. 

Climatic aspects. The study area is marked with heavy rains during monsoons of 4205mm per year spread over June-September of heavy rains and another 3-4 months of light showers. Temperature varying from 22 to 360C and humidity ranging from 50-80% mark the summer. Udupi being in the coastal region, the seasonal variation of temp and humidity is very small. Wind direction and velocity: winds are strong and mainly south-westerly in the southwest monsoon months. During the rest of the year the winds are mainly from directions between north and east in forenoons and west and northwest in afternoons. Average velocity is about 5.75 km/h.

LandscapeThe natural landscape and agricultural landscape is a resource which is an asset for water and food security. These are essential for the future of development of the District. The landscape can be broadly categorized as

Beach and riverfront with its own characteristic habitat. Hence the sensitivity of development should be keeping in mind the fragile nature of the landscape and its viability to sustain the pressures of housing development.

Degraded forest cover has been modified to a large extent in places like Manipal. A large scale rejuvenation of surrounding landscape needs to be taken up to balance this development with adequate natural resource management techniques to support the development around rendering it sustainable.

Thin forest cover interspersed with homesteads In this case the original forest cover could be rejuvenated wherever possible to create a balance between the increasing pressures on land and benefits of natural resource conservation towards creating self-sufficient habitations.

Agricultural land with plantations and attached homes: These areas have an established traditional system of rain water harvesting, ground water recharging and irrigation. There are roadways which open into the fields with small water catchment pond called ‘madga’ which are in turn linked with large drains with check dams, holding water for about two months after the rainy season for agriculture. Hence effectively there is water for 10 months in a year which accommodates between 2-5 crop cycles.These systems are being made obsolete due to thoughtless conversions of agricultural land and interventions of road and bridge construction through the drains. It is imperative to map the system and have special regulations to conserve the rain water harvesting systems.

Natural Reserved forest and sanctuaries:There are 3-4 sanctuaries and many allotted reserved forest areas especially towards the Western Ghat areas. Similarly there are many rare migratory birds visiting the Gangolli river biosphere with conserved mangrove plantation along the sea coast near mouth of the river.

The region is very rich in practices of rituals, art forms, and dance and music forms distinct to the region surviving to date. It has a living cultural heritage with both symbolic representation in monuments and rituals as well as visual and performing art forms acknowledged in India and abroad. This has been well integrated with modern lifestyle and contemporary accessories. The economic and social development is marked with four nationalized bank have originated from this region, and international level education destination like Manipal University has its roots here and famous cuisine of Udupi hotels have made a mark nationally. Having 297km of coastline has made fishing and allied trade an important part of the economy with two fishing harbors at Malpe and Gangolli. Agriculture also dominates the economy of this region with 29% of total area under cultivation with Paddy being the main crop. The plantation of coconut, arecanut, banana dominate with cashew, rubber, vanilla, cocoa and other cash crops are also present and animal husbandry along with agriculture add another 20% of the economy. 

The coastal districts of Karnataka are rich in its environment and natural resources but it is lacking in its management strategies. This has led to unplanned growth and overexploitation of resources and there are lot of indicators of environmental disturbances like salt water intrusion, pollution of river water, reduction in species and number of birds and fishes. Since documentation and mapping was not done in the past years the extent of loss cannot be assessed accurately, however the effects are so strong that they have been noticed.

The coastal zone of Karnataka has high density of population evolved through centuries hence there are many towns and villages existing along the coastal belt. Relocating the people or total restriction of development activities is not possible in this region as the livelihood and welfare of many families are dependent on the coast.  The mapping of development activities and overlaying the information of various findings of the coastal region will help in assessing the present status effectively,  for future monitoring of activities and implementation  of policies and planning of the future developments in various departments in the coastal region. Integration of the guidelines to form one set of policies for all development activities will go a long way for effective coastal zone management of natural resources, biodiversity conservation, cultural and societal development in a sustainable manner.

 Though the region receives plenty of rainfall, it still faces scarcity of water in summer months.  Increasing incidences of salt-water intrusion into the wells on account of over-exploitation of groundwater resources, influx of untreated domestic and industrial effluents, pesticides and pharmaceutical pollutants into the rivers are some of the reasons for the scarcity of potable water.  This deterioration of water quality is bringing unknown consequences on the local communities and the biodiversity of the river-estuarine and oceanic ecosystem.  Fragmented development plans of various administrative bodies and local authorities have led to fragmented information, policies, development plans and project. There are conflicts of interest due to this lack of coordination. The research activities of various fields relevant to coastal region also are fragmented and the findings are not utilised to develop the development projects and policies. This has led to depletion and pollution of natural resource due to mismanagement and lack of tools for effective implementation of conservation of environment policies present in the governing bodies. There is a conflict of interest in the targets set by various governing agencies of government and private sector. The goal of this study would be as follows:

1.Updating and mapping the development activities along the coast- built form density, main road network, supporting infrastructure, fishing ports, harbor etc. in relation of existing political and economic system.

2.Perceptual and behavioral studies at key space categorized as per classification of development types and spaces therein. 

3.Assessing the geological status and quality of water resource status and understand its carrying capacity and document traditional conservation practices if present.

4.Demographic studies and settlement pattern w.r.t. - distribution of population, occupational structure, income status, education status, health status, immigration, migration etc.

5.Baseline study of major ions, trace metals, fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceutical pollutants in the three large coastal rivers, Nethravati, Sharavati and Kali (N-S-K) and several open wells and tube wells across coastal Karnataka

6.Study the transport of the toxic metals across the river, their behavior with respect to changes in pH, conductivity, discharge, dissolved oxygen etc- this will help us in understanding their bioavailability to the various species of fish in the river

7.Eco toxicological studies on fish based on the results obtained from the trace metal and pharmaceutical pollutants.  Whether the microbial community in the rivers is acquiring resistance to various antibiotics? 

8.Study of various administrative bodies, NGO’s, self-help groups their policies and future plans and impact of these activities in the coastal zone and developing possible guidelines for integrated approach for the same.

9.Publishing the findings in print and internet and making research accessible for the people as a handbook for all development activities. 

Who will take these actions?

  • Administrative bodies, local authorities along the coast- these are key actors in implementation of various policies from the government regarding ports and fisheries, coastal zone management, urban infrastructure, pollution control board, district administration office, panchayat and municipalities etc.This exercise will help them correlate the policies of various departments and implement them in a constructive manner without conflicts as well as have ready reference of data and statistics for review and decision making.
  • Networking and integration of research activities in the region in different fields related to environment and development activities like Indian institute of sciences, Bangalore (IISC), National Institute of technology of Karnataka, Surathkal(NITK), National Research center for fisheries, Karwar, national Institute of Fisheries, Mangalore- collecting the research findings and collating it into an integrated mapping system with priority values and assessing the qualitative and quantitative indicators of development.
  • NGO’s and self-help groups- for coastal fisheries and port associations, biodiversity registry group etc.  This exercise will help them assess the social and political structures guiding the society along with their concerns and aspirations and integrate various interests in a comprehensive manner before taking any action.

Traditional Indian Scholarship and Local communities of the villages and towns, to find ground realities, behavioral patterns, activities, cultural structure, economic activities etc. of the people of the region. Understanding the place makes them look at larger picture and also helps them involve in development activities of the region along with their personal development. 

Where will these actions be taken?

In Udupi District of karnataka State in India. The study focuses on Udupi town of Udupi district, Karnataka state in south India.The coordinates being 13.35°N, 74.75°E, situated 58km to the north of Mangalore, 882km south of Mumbai via NH4, 399.3km west of Bangalore via NH 48, at an altitude of 10m above the mean sea level.

What are other key benefits?

Mapping and documenting the perception and behavior of people with infrastructure present will identify the local culture, strengths, potential, their needs, problems and aspiration of the people and stakeholders of the region.  Plan will be in tune with the ground realties making implementation easier and effective.

The coastal zones could be further classified and relevant policies could be developed as per the localized needs of the region. 

The translation of policies and data into maps and single source reference of policies for development activities will help effective implementation of objectives, monitoring of resources and integrated planning of overall coastal belt.

The distribution of the findings in form of handbooks and e-books will educate the people and create awareness to participate willingly for wellbeing of this region. This will also help in transparency of procedures and effective investment in activities without conflict of interest. 

What are the proposal’s costs?


1.a) Inductively Coupled Plasma –Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS; Thermo/Agilent/AnalyticaJena/Perkin-elmer  make)

b) Accessories/ ultrapure chemicals and standards, clean lab, warranty for 3 years and AMC for the next 7 years

c) Dedicated 10 KVA UPS for the instrument

d) Clean room for housing ICP-MS equipped with air conditioning

117004.50 +39001.50+5460.21+3120.12

2Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulphur analyzer 


3Ion chromatograph 


3.Elix-3 and Milli-Q water purification systemMILLIPORE® make


4Cold room facility (for sample storage)


5.Readymade Fume cupboards (2 nos) 


6Readymade laminar flow benches (2 nos)


7GIS software


8.FARO® Laser Scanner Focus3d X 330 integrated with GPS with laser scanner starter kit, tripod with power dock and battery.


9.Leica Nova TM 50 or similar  Imaging Survey Total Stations with accessories like tripod, prism, poles etc.


10.Portable laptop to store data of survey and processing of high end graphics.


11.Contingency of consultation for the equipment maintainance and repair


Total for equipments 401,715.45 US$

Summary of total expenditure:

A Recurring   

1. Fellowship/Manpower 92105.94


2. Consumables 8424.32


3. Travel 31201.20


4. Contingency/ other costs 21840.84

B Equipment 401809.05

C Overheads (15% of the total project cost) 69837.65

Grand total (A+B+C) 625219.01 US $

If applicable Service tax @12.33% 93782.85


total 719,001.86 US $


Time line

the first two years will involve the following activities:

Newspaper advertisement and appointment of research personnel

Data collection involving literature survey of data from research scientists and various governing bodies and organizations

Setting up the lab infrastructure

Call for quotations, procuring and installation of equipments

Reconnaissance survey of the study area

Survey of facility and digitizing the data

second to fourth year would involve

Digitizing and mapping process with preliminary guidelines

Group discussion with stakeholders, research experts, local authorities

Field trips- Sample collection and processing, detailed surveying of study area identified

Editing of maps and possible guidelines

Measurement of various parameters in the laboratory

 Review with stakeholders, local people, governing bodies and discussion and debate

Field trips- Sample collection, filtration, drying and weighing of SPM, detailed surveys and analysis

Statistical analysis and interpretation of results obtained and preparation and submission of manuscripts for publication in reputed peer-reviewed journals;  Preparation of final project report and submission to funding agency

fifth year would be

Integration of policies from various agencies and stakeholders

Refining the policies, proposal maps and implementation tool kit and publication of the research findings in the form of reference manuals 

Related proposals


Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences,. (June 2007.). ’A report on Management of Tidal Inlets along West Coast’,  Surathkal,: Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, Local Implementing Agency NITK,.

G.S. Dwarakish a, S. V. (2009, September). Coastal vulnerability assessment of the future sea level rise in Udupi coastal zone of Karnataka state, west coast of India. Ocean & Coastal Management , 52(9), 467–478.

H.N.UdayaShankar. (Aug 1994). ‘Landform Analysis Of Coastal And Hinterland A Part Of Dakshin Kannada Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Mangalore: Unpublished Doctoral Thesis Submitted To Mangalore University.

IISC. (June 2008). Ground water information booklet for Udupi District. Central Ground Water Board,. Bangalore: Ministry Of Water Resource, Government Of India.

Kunte P.D., B. (1991). Spit evolution and shore drift direction along south Karnataka coast. Giornale di Geologia, ser. 3, vol 53, no2, 71-80. 

Madhav, G. (December 2004). Karnataka state of environment report and action plan biodiversity sector. Bangalore.: Centre for Ecological Sciences, IISC.

S. Chantamil Selvan, R. K. (Jul 2014). Assessment of shoreline changes along Karnataka coast, India using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 43(7).

Shetty, Deepika. (13th- 14th April 2015). Sustainable Integrated Development of Urban Infrastructure for Udupi District. In M. S. Anderson (Ed.), 3rd Annual International Conference ‘ACE2015 : Architecture and Civil Engineering.2, pp. 616-624. Singapore: GSTF GLobal Science and Technology Forum.

Shetty, Deepika. (2012, December). Understanding Morphology through Space Syntax Analysis and Relating To Mental Map of Barkur Town. (J. P. Tarachand, Ed.) JA Journal of Architecture: Architectural Conservation and Restoration: , Volume 02(Number 02), 1-5.

Shetty, Deepika. (2013). Comprehensive plan of Coastal Regulation Zone in Udupi District for CRZ-III zone . Ministry of Environment and Forestry of Karnataka, Bangalore: Karnataka State Coastal Zone Management Authority , 

Shetty, Deepika. (2013). Reviewing the meaning and form of territorial boundaries for social sustainability: cultural thresholds in the ancient town of Barkur in Karnataka. (M. Misra, Ed.) Spandrel- Sustainable development and the wisdom of vernacular architecture(6), 63-72.

Shetty, Deepika. (2015). Morphology of small town Barkur in Coastal karnataka India. Manipal, Karnataka, India: Unpublished doctoral thesis submitted to Manipal University.

Subash Chandran M.D, R. G. (oct 2010). Green Walls For Karnataka Sea Coast. Karnataka Forest Department,, Honavar Forest Division. Bangalore – 560012, India.: Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences,Indian Institute of Science,.

T G Sitharam, N. J. (April 2012). A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State. Journal of Earth System Sciences, 121, No. 2, 475–490.