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This proposal is based on the emission reduction commitment made by India for the Paris Agreement.



This seed proposal is based on the emission reduction commitment submitted by India for the UNFCCC's 2015 climate negotiations. It was created by a Climate CoLab staff member. We invite other CoLab members to link to this proposal or to use it as a starting point for creating new proposals of their own. The government of India has not reviewed or endorsed this proposal. 

India is expected to continue expansive growth into the next decades, with its urbanized population rapidly growing. It is also a country with the largest amount of poor and vulnerable populations. 

Overall Goals

  1. To reduce emissions by 33-35% by 2030 from 2005 levels.
  2. 40% electric power installed capacity from renewable energy sources.
  3. To create a carbon sink of 2.5-3 billion tonnes of CO2 from forests by 2030.


Which proposals are included in your plan and how do they fit together?

Additional incentives by India's government 


  1. Increase in renewable capacity from 35 GW to 175 GW by 2020
  2. National Solar Mission increased from 20 GW to 100 GW by 2020. 
  3. Campaign for Energy Conservation with the goal of saving 10% of energy consumption by 2018-2019.
  4. Swachh Bharat Mission to make India litter free by 2019. 
  5.  Green Highways (Plantation & Maintenance) Policy to develop a tree line of 140,000 km long along the highways.
  6. Passenger vehicle fuel-efficiency standards will be finalized.
  7. Production of energy efficient locomotives and change to 100% of from 2016-17 onwards.



  1.  100 mobile soil-testing laboratories setup across the country.
  2. Policies aimed at creating efficient agricultural practices (including irrigation). 
  3. Policies to rejuvenate the Ganges River. 
  4. Encourage citizens to give up subsidy for cooking gas, and leave it for those who are truly needy. 


Climate Finance

  1. 55.6 million National Adaptation Fund
  2. Reduction in fossil fuel subsidies
  3. Coal cess increased to INR 200 per tonne
  4. Tax free infrastructure bonds for renewable enegry projects


Future Plans

  1. Expanding technologies in thermal power generation 
  2. Reducing emissions from the transportation sector
  3. Reducing emissions from waste 
  4. Developing climate resilience 
  5. Afforestation
  6. Reduce vulnerability to climate change

Explanation of the emissions scenario calculated in the Impact tab

What are the plan’s key benefits?

India feels as though that their ambitious actions will help incentivize developed states reevaluate their pre-2020 actions to combat climate change.

What are the plan’s costs?

Adaptation costs- USD 206 billion 

Mitigation costs- USD 834 billion 

Total costs- USD 2.5 trillion 

What are the key challenges to enacting this plan?

India's ability to fulfill the aforementioned plan requires the response of the international community, and the willingness to share technology that will enable greener development. Development aid will also be fundamental, as these programs will be costly. India calls for the enhancement of bilateral cooperation between developing and developed states.


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