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This plan is based on the COP21 key United States’ INDC contributions, as highlighted by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES)



This seed proposal is a summary of the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) COP21 United States’ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), created by a Climate CoLab Fellow. We invite other CoLab members to link to this proposal or to use it as a starting point for creating new proposals of their own. The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions has not endorsed or reviewed this summary.

Through analysis and dialogue, the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) works with governments and stakeholders to identify practical and effective options for an international climate framework. 

In its INDC, C2ES outlines that the the United States intends to achieve an economy-wide target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions 26-28% below 2005 levels in 2025, 17 to 20% below 2005 levels, meaning additional measures will be needed to achieve the 2025 target.

The US INDC plan strives to  cutting carbon pollution through new measures, including:

•    Clean Power Plan: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed guidelines for existing power plants  that would reduce power sector emissions 30% below 2005 levels by 2030 while delivering $55-93 billion in annual net benefits from reducing carbon pollution and other harmful pollutants.

·     Standards for Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles: President Obama directed EPA and the Department of Transportation to issue the next phase of fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. These standards for medium- and heavy- duty trucks could achieve a little over 1% of the target in 2025 with more significant reductions later, according to early projections

•    Energy Efficiency Standards: The Department of Energy set a goal of reducing carbon pollution by 3 billion metric tons cumulatively by 2030 through energy conservation standards issued during this Administration. 

•    Economy-Wide Measures to Reduce other Greenhouse Gases: EPA and other agencies are taking actions to cut methane emissions from landfills, coal mining, agriculture, and oil and gas systems through cost-effective voluntary actions and common-sense regulations and standards. The State Department is working to slash global emissions of potent industrial greenhouse gases, called HFCs, through an amendment to the Montreal Protocol; EPA is cutting domestic HFC emissions through its Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program; and, the private sector has stepped up with commitments to cut global HFC emissions equivalent to 700 million metric tons through 2025. Measures to reduce HFCs and methane are projected to achieve a further 3.5 to 7% reduction. EPA analysis suggests that the plan would reduce total US emissions 7.3% below 2005 levels by 2025.

Collectively, these measures would reduce U.S. emissions about 16.7 to 20.1%below 2005 levels by 2025. 

Which proposals are included in your plan and how do they fit together?

Explanation of the emissions scenario calculated in the Impact tab

What are the plan’s key benefits?

President Obama has put in place the most ambitious set of climate change actions that the United States has ever undertaken. The US has adopted standards to double the fuel efficiency of American cars and trucks, and also have plans to cut emissions from new and existing power plants, set to accelerate these reductions in the future.

Analysts have identified additional federal and state measures, beyond those contained in the Climate Action Plan, that can fill the remaining gap to achieve a 26 to 28% reduction in U.S. emissions by 2025. These include:

·       Energy efficiency improvements and fuel switching in the industrial sector (bulk chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, iron and steel, and cement) could contribute around 3% of the target.

·       Reduction in global warming pollution through changes in agriculture, forestry and other land use by nearly 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2020 and 3 billion in 2030.  

What are the plan’s costs?


What are the key challenges to enacting this plan?

Political buy-in.


Until the finalization of COP21 and ongoing.

Related plans


This proposal is a summary of the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions United States INDC: