Simple CO2 filter feasible today, fits all transport motor vehicles, potential high for CO2 capture at low cost, safe storage with benefits
The CO2 imperative is economic capture and safe storage today. An example is vehicle’s exhaust CO2 reduced by filtering at low cost.
Previously, formulas with faster kinetics captured 40% CO2/volume output over 50 miles. 
New formulas in this report, capture CO2 by media weight increase over mileage. The weight gains reported are modest 1% to 50% over 100 to 1000 miles.
The 50% case increase, post 1000 miles, is from a fused media of double salt-silicate matrix in a porous/friable state, forming an intractable mass after the long exhaust dwell-time of 1000 miles.
If the case were duplicated on fleet vehicles driven 24/7/365, the CO2 separated from exhaust amount over one year could be a significant one million tons CO2.
Assumptions: the same filter on 100,000 fleet vehicles, same mineral media weight-gain each 1000 miles total annual gain = 876,000 tons CO2.
Formulated media of cation/silicate composition derived from low cost mineral waste dust from stone cutting processes and remixed. Composition of dust samples compose spherical beaded media of 1-mm sized particles which react to vaporous CO2+H2O acidic exhaust capturing
Mold-making a filter could enable machine-stamped filter parts mass-produced. Duplicated initial results on many vehicles would amount to multiples of above case results to significant amounts for filters costing $10 each with a mineral dust per ton of $30.
There were no interruptions to vehicle performance or changes in fuel consumption using this filter.
Exhaust exposed media: mineral-CO2 solid is inert and safe to store below ground or reuse as fertilizer. In soil it promotes biomolecular chlorophyll blooms, but not in controls.
Study contributes benchmarking exercise for mobile-sourced CO2 capture and safe storage as well as, material for further analysis necessary for low emission security.
Category of the action
Who will take these actions?
City of Cambridge Advisory Board
State and Local Allies
Enlist advisory knowledge from State, Federal advocates groups tasked with improving environmental performance, energy efficiency determining specific buildings demonstrating biggest opportunity, or having monitoring data, or reporting energy data usage (examples, K2C2 Plan, PUD-5 & Forest City)
- State Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE)
- PACE + R (S 177) at State level
- Cambridge Net Zero Task Force
- City of Cambridge Community Development Department
- Cambridge City Council
- Massachusetts Secretary of Energy & Environmental Affairs
- Massachusetts Stretch Energy Code
Guidance & Endorsements
- National Labs, LBNL Heat Island Group 
- LEED Certified Standards
- US Dept of Energy
- US EPA
Related groups for operational aspects proposed
- IT hardware/software program development
- Sensor network chemical/particle analysis
- Applied solar heat-aerosol-health data analysis & utility
- Video production/cool roofs, How to Mix and Apply
- Install light pavement surface coverage
- Air pollution control, City streets & vehicles
- Idle & speed reductions
- Grant writers
- R&D unit
Related organizations, individuals, employees, volunteers
- vendors, suppliers
- traffic engineer
- operators, data-entry
- summer students
- summer interns
- post docs
- NGO affiliates
- start City for-profit entity
- LLC affiliates
White roofs and pavements help reduce global warming by both conserving energy and reflecting sunlight back into space. It would be the equivalent of taking all the cars in the world off the road for 11 years.
-Steven Chu, Nobel Prize-winning US Secretary of Energy 2009
What are other key benefits?
Other key benefits
Natural geochemical CO2 sequestration is slow; a derived method can potentially accomplish the same task in minutes.
CO2 for storage credit or reuse in aquaculture respiration (algae/fish); amendment successfully adds to depleted soil, promotes growth
Metro CO2, dominant GHG species may be captured & safely retained as inert solid
Benefit beyond GHG reduction, investment provides work, strengthens economy
Carbon reduction byproduct benefits soil and water life-form growth
Recent evidence CO2 solid in nutrient-depleted soils promote abundant plant growth absent in controls
What are the proposal’s costs?
Lowest cost/highest output-per-volume method is an automated one. Manufacturing parts stamped-out from molds use of computer programmed tooling. Method requirements machine drawings, specific software, significant start-up expense. Example mold would making based on fleet-vehicle type, year-model intended pollution control retrofit upgrades.
Estimate/Filter_ mold/build for machine to stamp out filter parts in volume production assessment by manufacturers offering to share cost for regional provincial market rights/build offshore $10-20K
Parts for CO2FD, this method Low Cost $10
Auto/Manufacturing_Start-up United States $10-25M
Low efficiency alternative
Lower-cost/lower-volume output option (not recommended) farming-out parts to build detailed SolidWorks drawings local machine shops, custom-made approach dedicating 1000 sq ft floor space/100 unit mfg/person/month dedicated tooling leased / purchased welders,rollers,cutters, etc
Custom CO2FD (1) designed_installed_leak-tested Referenced ongoing  $2,700
Filter design_fleet build/test prototype $12K
Filters 100 build/Install/service/(1-yr) $100K
Technology Advisor, p/t annual $30K
start-up conventional-venture capital.
Other unconventional, accelerated return note (ARN):
investment return (ROI) capped total ROI without
downside protection like traditional ARN, envisioned short to medium range debt instrument funding with restricted appeal to segment of investors knowing investment only appreciate marginally before ARN maturity, will not decline sharply dollar-wise in value. However, unlike traditional ARN, carbon company investment, while never declining sharply in value, will appreciate its ROI dollars equal to t market value of carbon.
- transport vehicles
- bus and transit fleets, etc
2016 J F M A M J J A S O N D 2017 J F M
Filters, Transit I,__________________| Filters, Transit II,_______|
Phase I Phase II
- Curbing Emissions Curbing Emissions
- Vehicle I Vehicle II
- Street Traffic Filtration Street idle & speed control
Considerations on recurring themes
1. Back pressure is outdated yet remains a concern and mostly applies to older technology vehicles without electronic features, or electronic controls of on-board computers capable of real-time adjustments. The important consideration on this topic for modern vehicle reference, is don't leave a large empty opening in the exhaust flow that will swing flow pressure beyond the capability of compensation. Otherwise, the vehicle Check Engine light will illuminate due to a pressure differential detected beyond the programmed set-points. Properly installed and leak-tested, retrofits should fall within the programmed limits when welded to a continuous flow on stock systems and the Check Engine light will not illuminate.
2. Stoichiometric or theoretical calculation of combustion reactants equals total mass of the products and exact mixing proportions to efficiently burn all fuel completely. In reality, internal combustion engines are inefficient. All fuel does not burn. However, with air:fuel ratios commonly 14:1, one gallon of gasoline (6 pounds) will produce about 19 pounds of CO2.
The intent here is to capture as much as possible. Initially, only fractions of output are captured, but even these amounts are considered better than nothing.
Flue-gas CO2 capture by Accelerated Weathering
Emission from power plants producing electrical energy is reduced by accelerated weathering of limestone just as rock weathering will naturally dissolve limestone into bicarbonates over geological time. Accelerated weathering of flue gas CO2 emissions with limestone dust and water, dissolves the CO2 rapidly to bicarbonate ions. (Rau, et al)  (Murray et al) 
Natural weathering and accelerated weathering both have equivalent impacts when bicarbonates enter seawater storage and biotic uptake.
Bicarbonate ions and mineral cations remove for the long-term, CO2 from the hydrosphere by precipitating carbonate.
Second, CO2 is immobilized by marine biotics until eaten or sinking calcareous remains to sea floor mud where remain build to stratified layers compressed chalk and under more/heat limestone formations of calcium carbonate, etc. and marble, etc., until finally graphite the representing most stabilized removal of atmospheric CO2.
 http://www.carboncapturefilters.com Murray, K.D. Murray, K.A.,Vehicle exhaust 5-gas analysis before/after method for CO2 reduction, 2009:
 Huybers, Peter J., and Charles Langmuir, Feedback between deglaciation, volcanism, and atmospheric CO2, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2009.
 Bill Bryson, A Short History of Nearly Everything, BroadwayBooks, 2003.
 Murray, Kenneth D., "Curbing traffic emissions with carbon dioxide removal", February, 2015.
Experimental filter, center
 High performance capability with experimental CO2 filter reduces carbon emission on Mercedes Benz ML350. Mineral combination traps CO2 molecules, accelerates natural geochemical capture/storage.
 Cave system in Vietnam, National Geographic, 2015.
 Cave environment, a natural CO2 trap for long-term carbon storage evidenced by mineral carbonate precipitates is study under consideration for MIT Climate Colab,m Geoeng. proposal, CO2 air capture and long-term removal using the carbonate cavern conditional response atmospheric pressure, Murray, Geoengineering Workspace, MIT Climate CoLab, 2015.
H Sano, K Kanmera - Facies, 1996 - Springer
 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Report on Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR), Februray, 2015
 Yegulalp T.M., K.S. Lackner and H.J. Ziock, “A Review of Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Use of Coal for Power Generation,” presented at Sixth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 30-June 2 (2000).
 Recent Developments and Outlook for Clean Energy from Coal without Combustion T.M.Yegülalp Henry Krumb School of Mines, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
 Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation Literature Review W.J.J. Huijgen & R.N.J. Comans
 G. Rau, et al, U.S. Patent 7,655,193 Feb 2010; U.S. Patent 8,177,946 May 2012.
 K. Murray, et al, U.S. Patent 7,914,758 Mar 2011; U.S.Patent 8211394, July 2012.