A 450ppm CO2e(2 degreeC warmer )World requires a Transformation to a Sustainable Energy Future
The gravity of our greenhouse predicament is enough to weigh anyone down. But the smart way to deal with climate change is to channel our angst and frustration into constructive action. The most obvious way to take individual action on climate change is to reduce the size of our carbon footprint-the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions that result directly and indirectly from our lifestyle .Since this will include increasing our energy efficiency at home and on the road.
Transporting people and goods by road,sea and air is responsible for around a quarter of global greenhouse emissions, and this figure is rising fast.So if we’re to tackle global warming .We ‘ll have to develop loweremissions vehicles- not to mention promoting public transport and some would argue , reducing the flow of people and goods around the world.
Biodiesel produces almost no pollutants and its manufacturing process is easy. Using Ricebran Oil from wasted RiceBran with Methanol we can produce Biodiesel .
Category of the action
Building efficiency: Physical Action
What actions do you propose?
Technology and policy options for mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions from Transport Sectors;
With careful planning, appropriate incentives, and development and spread of advanced technologies, these goals can be met in ways that also help to reduce risk of climate change, the biggest long-term challenge in relation to energy use.
Firstly,Society needs to find ways to limit global warming to around 2°C, thereby reducing the risk of most serious consequences of climate change. Policies to achieve this should be political priority, especially in industrialized countries
Secondly, The needed transformations in patterns of power generation and energy use are very great (eg, around 90% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in UK), and they will require major policy initiatives and legal, fiscal, economic, and other measures to achieve. Policies to reduce human population growth and livestock production could also have an important role in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.
Thirdly, There is no shortage of technological options and practices that would enable the world to enjoy the benefits of using energy while moving to an energy system with low emissions of greenhouse gases. The world's energy needs could eventually be met several times over by such energy resources, and through improving efficiency in energy consumption and use.
Forthly,There are imperative to transfer technology to less developed countries to ensure their urgent health and development needs can be met without further contributing to adverse health and environmental effects at local and global levels.
Finally, The challenge faced by society in moving to cleaner, healthier, more sustainable patterns of energy use is comparable to great public-health challenges of earlier generations, and its successful achievement will require bold and visionary leadership, which we predict would result in substantial benefits to global health both in the short and long terms.
Chronology of Federal Legislation
Alternative fuel and fuel economy legislation dates back to the Clean Air Act of 1970, which created initiatives to reduce mobile sources of pollutants. In 1975, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act established Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and required the distribution of fuel economy information to consumers. To incentivize alternative fuel vehicle development, the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 established vehicle manufacturer incentives in the form of CAFE credits
The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) laid the foundation for highway construction and safety programs. Subsequent Surface Transportation Acts include the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) of 1998, and the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), enacted in 2005. Each of these acts authorizes funds for highway construction, highway safety, and public transportation programs.
The Energy Policy Act of 1992 established regulations requiring certain federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets to build an inventory of alternative fuel vehicles. It was amended several times in the Energy Conservation and Reauthorization Act of 1998 and in 2005 via the Energy Policy Act in 2005, which emphasized alternative fuel use and infrastructure development.
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 included provisions to increase the supply of renewable fuel sources and raise CAFE standards to 35 miles per gallon by 2020. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act authorized the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, which provided several provisions related to tax credits and exemptions for alternative fuels and fuel-efficient technologies.
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 appropriated nearly $800 billion towards the creation of jobs, economic growth, tax relief, improvements in education and healthcare, infrastructure modernization, and investments in energy independence and renewable energy technologies. The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 extended and reinstated a number of alternative fuel tax credits. This section summarizes these laws.
Below are summaries of selected sections of federal legislation related to alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies.
American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012
Enacted January 2, 2013
American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (Public Law 112-240 (PDF)) extends and reinstates several alternative fuel incentives. The law reinstates, effective through December 31, 2013, the alternative fuel infrastructure tax credit, biodiesel income tax credit, biodiesel mixture excise tax credit, and alternative fuel mixture excise tax credits and incorporates a tax credit for two- and three-wheeled plug-in electric vehicles through December 31, 2013. It also extends until December 31, 2014, the second generation biofuel producer tax credit and second generation biofuel plant depreciation deduction allowance. In addition, it extends discretionary funding for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees, Advanced Biofuel Production Payments, Biodiesel Education Grants, Biomass Research and Development Initiative, and Ethanol Infrastructure Grants and Loan Guarantees.
Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010
Enacted December 17, 2011
Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-312 (PDF)) extends and reinstates several alternative fuel tax credits. The law extends until December 31, 2011 the qualified alternative fuel vehicle fueling property tax credit, the volumetric ethanol excise tax credit (VEETC), and the ethanol and biodiesel producer tax credits. It also reinstates, effective January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011, the alternative fuel and alternative fuel mixture excise tax credits, as well as the biodiesel mixture excise tax credit.
Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008
Enacted October 3, 2008
The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 is Division B of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (Public Law 110-343 (PDF)). Title II of Division B of the law includes several provisions related to tax credits and exemptions for alternative fuels and fuel-efficient technologies. For a summary of the relevant provisions, see the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 summary table.
Energy Policy Act of 2005
Enacted August 8, 2005
The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 (Public Law 109-58 (PDF)) calls for the development of grant programs, demonstration and testing initiatives, and tax incentives that promote alternative fuels and advanced vehicles production and use. EPAct 2005 also amends existing regulations, including fuel economy testing procedures and EPAct 1992 requirements for federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets. For a summary of the provisions related to alternative fuels and vehicles, air quality, fuel efficiency, and other transportation topics, see the EPAct 2005 summary table.
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
Enacted November 15, 1990
The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 (Public Law 101-549) amend the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970. CAAA of 1990 substantially increase EPA's regulatory authority and create several initiatives to reduce mobile source pollutants, including establishing fuel quality controls and tighter pollution standards for motor vehicle emissions. For more information, refer to EPA's Overview of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975
Back to Top Enacted December 22, 1975
The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163) establishes Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for on-road vehicles beginning with Model Year (MY) 1978 in order to improve the overall fuel efficiency of new motor vehicles. EPCA grants the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration the authority to regulate CAFE standards, with the requirement that new standards may not be proposed more than five model years at a time. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy to publish and distribute an annual fuel economy guide for consumers. For more information, refer to the CAFE and FuelEconomy.gov websites.
Clean and fuel-efficient transportation;Low carbon Economy
Buying or arranging for the use of clean, fuel-efficient (and, where appropriate, alternative-fuel) vehicles can save money and reduce emissions of harmful greenhouse gases, sulfur, carbon monoxide, and particulates. (Where possible, of course, avoiding private vehicle use altogether cuts the most pollution and saves the most money). When purchasing company vehicles, consider the cleanest and most fuel-efficient models that fit our business needs. Hybrid options are also available for many vehicle types. Additionally, when arranging for car services, contract buses, and rentals, request the cleanest and most fuel-efficient vehicle that can accommodate our needs
Fuel Efficiency Saves Money
Higher fuel efficiency means that your company will use less gas for every mile traveled, and less gas use means financial savings. A car with a fuel economy of 20 miles per gallon, driven for 10,000 miles, costs at least $600 more per year to drive than a car with a fuel economy of 40 miles per gallon.
The rule of thumb when purchasing a vehicle is to choose the cleanest and most fuel-efficient model that fits our company’s needs. Buy the best fuel economy car in the class we are seeking, which in some cases might be a hybrid. we may also wish to consider an alternative-fuel car, such as one that runs on ethanol or biodiesel. Done right, biofuels could lead to reductions in global warming pollution; at the same time, they could save consumers money at the pump and spur the growth of new jobs and industries. On the other hand, it’s also possible to make biofuels in a way that increases global warming pollution and increases the price of basic agricultural products. Unfortunately, there are no labels on biofuels informing customers about their origin or the environmental impact of their manufacture. So for now, the bottom line is this: If we have a vehicle that can run on either E85 (85 percent ethanol) or gasoline, choose E85 when we can. However, when it’s time to buy a new vehicle, fuel efficiency should always be the top priority.
Program and Projects for Clean Fuel Transportation;
USEPA's SmartWay Transport Partnership is a market-driven
partnership aimed at helping businesses move goods in the cleanest most efficient way possible.
Since 2004, SmartWay partners have eliminated 51.6 million metric tons of CO2,
resulting in savings of 120.7 million barrels of oil and $16.8 billion in fuel costs.
Who will take these actions?
Where will these actions be taken?
How much will emissions be reduced or sequestered vs. business as usual levels?
From Carbon Footprint;
Agriculture byproducts 12.5%, Transportation fuels -14%
Again, US resident CO2 footprint-25.9tonnes
Here UK resident CO2 footprint-11.6tonnes
Africa resident CO2 footprint-0.9tonnes
US personal travel- 34%
UK Personal Travel-29%
Why I select poverty and pollution free RiceBran Biodiesel by 4R techniques means
1)My proposed project ecofrindly Ricebran Biodiesel doesn’t require any kinds of agricultural lands,intercropping systems like other energycrops .
2)It doesn’t require fertilizer extra cost which increases extra production cost of crops.
3)It needn’t require anytypes of irrigation systems means fossil fuels – petrol, diesel and health hazards free- free from air pollution.
4)It doesn’t require fertilizer,pesticides means water pollution free.
5)We can easily get from waste to energy by 4R techniques which wont be able to accelerate food production cost more awellas like biofuels affects to world food market.My product is Ecofriendly bcoz it comes from Ricehusk.
What are other key benefits?
Biodiesel its produced commercially from canola ,soybean and other inexpensive vegetable oils,but also raises questions about the wider impacts of the burgeoning international market for oilcrops.Huge areas of tropical rainforest have already been cleared to make way for Soybean and palmoil cultivation,with disastrous impacts on both biodiversity and the climate .Forthis reason, biodiesel has become something of a controversial subject,with environmentalists divided over its potential benefits and costs.
- Reducing CO2 footprint
- Reduce fuel consumption for transport
- Ensuring Environmental sustainability and sustainable transport around the globe
To prevent pollution and reduce waste ,many environmental scientists urge us to understand and live by four key principles;4) the best and cheapest way to deal with waste and pollution is to produce less of it and then reuse and recycle most materials we use
What are the proposal’s costs?
Its about 50lacks BDT .
It is Startup condition means Reserach And Development.It needs 3/4 yrs.
1.Climate Changes by Kenneth M.Strzepek and Joel.B.Smith
2.Sustainable Earth by Taylor
3.Climate Change-The Symptoms-The Science-The Solutions by James lovelock
4.Weather and Climate by Laure Chemery
5.Waste,Recycling and Reuse-Our Impact on the Planet by Rob Bowden
6.Health and Environment
Impact Assessment (British Medical Association)
7.Waste Teatment and Disposal by Paul-T.William ,Professor of Environmental Engineering,The University of Leeds
8.Global Warming by John Houghton
9.Environmental Chemistry by Colin Baird
10.The Road to Zero Emissions by Gunter Pauli
11.Health and Diseases in developing Countries by Karis Lanknen, Staffon Bengster
12.Climate Change 2001-Mitigation by Bert Matz,Ogunlade Davidson.Rob Swart,Jiahua Pan.
13.Climate Change-William James
14.Human Ecology by Gerald G Marten
15.The Carbon Cycle by Martin Redfern
16.FAO at Work 2009-2010( Growing Food for Nine Billion)
17.Nutrition and Health –Bangladesh FIVIMS by Dr.Harun K.M.Yusuf
18.Agroeconomic and Social Vulnerability
19.Million Homes Reached with Solar Electricity by Grameen Shakti
20.Development and Climate Change by WorldBank 2010
21.Paving the way for a Green and Sustainable Future by Abser kamal.
22.The Rough Guide to Climate Change by Robert Henson
23.How can we Save the Earth by Mayer Hillman.
24.UNFCCC , IEA, EPA, UNDP , ENERGYPEDIA websites.
25. EPA, Pinterest ETC.