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India and a dream for green future


Description

 

Executive summary

In order to make our mother earth a happy planet we need to ensure global sustainable development. Climate change is a giant threat for global sustainable development. Many scientific studies and our past experiences have made us understand the ill effects of climate change. Tackling climate change is a big concern for the world community now. That is the reason why in World Development Report 2010 of World Bank we saw “Development and Climate Change” as the main focus. To grow economically for socio-economic well-being with minimal impact on the environment is the need of the hour. It will not happen automatically. For that, proper planning and strategy formulation need to be done. Presently, India is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases. The world’s largest democracy and second most populous country of the world, India is home to 1/3rd of the world’s poor population (World Bank, 2010). It is a big challenge for the country to prosper by fighting against poverty and climate change. Moving into green economy is an optimistic way to do so. Here, some ideas and opinions along with policy recommendations about India’s transition into green economy have been proposed by the authors.

 

 

There cannot be one single step that will move India directly to green economy. There will be a number of interlinked systems that will help the concept of green economy to gain success in India. Sustainable development planning is one of them. Sustainable development planning (SDP) is essential to have an integrated holistic approach about utilization of resources and to formulate effective policies in order to ensure environment protection, economic growth and social development with equity. Innovative IT based application (named as SDP) can help government significantly to have an eye on corporate entities from sustainability point of view and to define roles of government, corporations and NGOs in sustainable development in a better way. Creation of country specific Corporate Sustainability Index can play a crucial role in corporate sustainability. Systems thinking approach is important for industrial activities. Cluster wise industrial development with closed loop production is a way to ensure minimal environmental impact. Sustainable agricultural practices linked with e-agriculture and demand-supply synchronization is an innovative way to ensure sustainable production and consumption. All of these ideas and opinions would enable help India make the “dream for green future” a reality.

 

 

Team

The team consists of two members mentioned below:

Arnab Mandal is currently pursuing Master’s in Sustainable Development Practice at TERI University, India. Prior to joining this programme he worked as a Software Developer at IBM. He holds Bachelor of Engineering degree in Information Technology from Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur (formerly, B.E.College). His areas of interest include IT for Sustainability/ Green IT, e-Governance, Gov 2.0, ICT4D, Sustainability Consulting and Public Policy. He has contributed to this proposal by conceptualizing some ideas.

 

Pooja Arora is a Doctoral (PhD) candidate at TERI University, India. She is doing research on clean cook-stove. She has great interest on clean-tech and emerging technologies related to energy and environment. She has contributed to this proposal by creating the artistic representation, providing insight on emission and clean-tech along with refining thoughts.  

 

What

India’s major anthropogenic sources of GHG emissions can be summarized within five categories namely energy, industry, agriculture, waste and Land Use Land Use Change & Forestry (LULUCF).

The principal GHGs accounted are from all these sectors are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the energy sector, electricity generation and transport are primary GHG emitters. Industries that manufacture cement, iron & steel and chemical, serve as a major source GHG emissions. Intensive agriculture in India results in GHG emissions from livestock, rice cultivation and agricultural waste and crop residue burning in the fields in a considerable amount. GHG emissions from municipal waste and waste water and its disposal are much lower compared to other sectors, nevertheless, not enough low to be ignored (India: Greenhouse Gas emissions 2007, MOEF).

 

GHG emissions from India in the year 2005 were 1.859 million tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Total GHG emissions from India in 2005 were around 5% of the global emissions and 5th highest among all the countries. (Table1)

 

 

 Table 1: Total GHG emissions in India (2005)

 

 

India

Asia

Rank

5

--

MtCO2e

1,859.00

14,144.70

% of World Total

4.92%

37.41%

Per Capita Rank

149

--

Tonnes CO2e Per Person

1.7

3.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 8.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2011).

 

 

According to the various GHG emission scenarios percent increase in total CO2 equivalent GHG emissions in 2030 extends from 75% to 178%. Projections by POLES, a model based on link between energy sectors and climate policies [i], gave the highest % increase in GHGs in 2030. Increase in GHGs were predicted to be lowest by SRES-B2 Scenario-MESSAGE model, which is a dynamic linear programming model with its inputs based on “cost minimal supply structures under the constraints of resource availability, the menu of given technologies, and the demand for useful energy” [ii]. Predictions were comparable in the case of SRES-B2 Scenario-MESSAGE and EIA’s reference scenario. Aim (Asian-Pacific Integrated Model) and MINICAM (Mini Climate Assessment Model) also showed increase in GHG emission in 2030 on the higher side. Both of this models are an integration other existing models that project climate change and its impacts. 

 

 

Table 2: Predicted % increase in MtCO2e (from energy) in the year 2030 with 2005 as a baseline year

 

World

India

EIA reference

38.70%

75.10%

EIA High Case

50.60%

91.40%

EIA Low Case

28.00%

60.60%

IEA

39.50%

153.40%

POLES

71.00%

178.60%

SRES-A1 (A1B) Scenario-AIM

73.40%

128.50%

SRES-A1F1 (A1G) Scenario-MINICAM

89.80%

175.50%

SRES-A1T Scenario-MESSAGE

62.40%

138.70%

SRES-B1 Scenario-IMAGE

47.30%

76.50%

SRES-B2 Scenario-MESSAGE

37.00%

74.80%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 8.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2011).

A report published by Ministry of Environment and Forests in 2009 describes GHG emission scenarios generated by five institutions using different models. Model techniques and assumptions differed from each other to project varied possibilities of GHG scenarios for ensuing two decades. The projections are supposed to be a result of studies that are factual and unbiased.

 

      Table 3: Overview of scenarios

Institution

Model

Key features

GHG emissions in 2030-31 (CO2

or CO2e) (billion tons)

NCAER-CGE

Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model

Top down, sequentially dynamic and non-linear programming, predictive model

4.00 billion tons of

CO2e

TERI-MoEF

MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model

Bottom- up  linear programming, prescriptive model

4.9 billion tons (in

2031-32)

IRADe-AA

Activity Analysis model

Linear programming, prescriptive model 

4.23 billion tons

TERI-Poznan

Another MARKAL model by TERI

Same as TER-MoEF with lower GDP growth rate

7.3 billion tons in

2031-32

McKinsey

Detailed sector by sector analysis of GHG emissions

Bottom up improvements in

technology levers

5.7 billion tons (including methane

emissions from agriculture); ranges from 5.0 to 6.5 billion tons if GDP

growth rate ranges from 6 to 9 per cent

 

Source: Report on India’s GHG Emissions Profile: Results of Five Climate Modelling Studies, Climate Modelling Forum, India

   

 

 Figure 1: Projected GHG emissions for India

Source: Report on India’s GHG Emissions Profile: Results of Five Climate Modelling Studies, Climate Modelling Forum, India.

 

The models are partially linked and the three models, NCAER-CGE, TERI-MoEF (MARKAL), and IRADe-Activity Analysis models in their scenarios, do not involve any new policy measures for GHG mitigation. The results for four studies, except by McKinsey, show that even in absence of GHG mitigation measures GHG emissions per capita would be well below 2005 global average of GHG per capita emissions.

Since in absolute number, India is currently the third biggest emitter of GHGs with share of 5-6% of the global emissions [iii], there is a great need for strategies to move towards the green economy. UNEP defines green economy as “one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. In its simplest expression, a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive.” [iv]

The concept of green economy has a huge potential to help India achieve inclusive growth, the main agenda of India’s 12th Five Year Plan. For India’s smooth transition into green economy the authors have proposed the following:

·         Sustainable development planning

·         Corporate sustainability index

·         Systems thinking

·         Demand-supply synchronization

·         Green fund

·         Micro-level planning

·         Green actions

 

Figure 2: Proposal overview


 

 

 

Why: Rationale for the proposal

 

Sustainable Development Planning

The gravest challenge to society today is to combat climate change and poverty in order to move towards better tomorrow. The concept of sustainable development is very much related to our better future. The need of the hour is to look into the things relevant for sustainable development in a holistic manner and to take integrated approach in planning and policy making. Effective sustainable development planning is necessary for creation of a sustainable society. Sustainable development planning is very much needed to have an integrated holistic approach about utilization of resources and to formulate effective policies in order to ensure environment protection, economic growth and social development with equity. Huge bulk of disparate data and interwoven complexity of various issues make the job of policy makers difficult. Use of cutting edge technology can make their work easy. By drawing inspiration from corporate world, the authors propose here an innovative IT application- Sustainable Development Planning (SDP) that will facilitate the complex process of sustainable development planning.  The integrated approach of looking at various business functions and processes of an enterprise has given birth to smart ways of running business. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Business Intelligence (BI) applications are helping corporations to run business smartly. The proposed SDP application is an IT application that will help the administrators, planners and policy makers to do sustainable development planning, make policies to ensure green growth, decoupling, to manage information for fighting against climate change and poverty along with analyzing the information. It will significantly help administrators, policy makers and planners to do the following things:

  • to manage important information to fight against climate change and poverty
  • to measure and monitor progress in sustainable development
  • to understand and analyze the present scenario from sustainable development perspective
  • to co-relate and better define roles of government, corporate world and NGOs for sustainable development
  • to formulate effective policies and strategies to achieve sustainable development targets

The proposed SDP application will help government in dealing with corporate sustainability, social audit and sustainability indicators. Apart from keeping records SDP will analyze these issues based on the data and information to give planners, policy experts and administrators crystal clear idea about “where we are”, “where we need to go” and “where is the scope for improvement” using graphs, charts, maps, tables, etc.

 

The proposed SDP application will have three main aspects namely, SDP Components, SDP Analytics and SDP Portal. The SDP Components will consist of three components namely, Corporate Sustainability (CS), Sustainability Indicators (SI) and Social Audit (SA).

 

 

 

Figure 3: SDP overview

 

 

The CS component will be used to keep records of corporations regarding their practices, commitments and any data relevant for sustainable development. Information will be taken from annual sustainability reports of companies. In the software application, data fields can be total GHG emissions (EN16 as per GRI Framework), total water withdrawal (EN8 as per GRI Framework), total renewable energy usage, revenue, carbon credit, headquarter address with phone number, total expenditure for CSR activities in absolute figure, total expenditure for CSR activities as percentage of profit, etc. Industries are the main emitters of GHGs. Corporations can be blamed for environmental degradation. In the days of green economy it will be very important to have an eye on corporate entities so that environmental sustainability which is an important dimension of sustainable development gets its due importance. By using this SDP application government can have a better idea about the commitment of companies to Triple Bottom Line (Planet, People and Profit). It will help government keep records of individual companies and various industry sectors regarding their energy consumption, energy saving, use of renewable energy, water consumption, paper usage, etc.

 

Sustainable development indicators are very crucial from the green economy point of view since it captures environmental indicators, economic indicators and social indicators. The SI component will be used for keeping information related to various sustainability indicators.  Some of them are UN Sustainable Development Indicators, World Development Indicators by the World Bank, Sustainable Development Indicators (government’s official indicators).  

 

Transparency, accountability and impact of NGOs, civil society organizations and voluntary organizations are big concerns for governments especially in developing countries. In India there are roughly 3.3 million NGOs as per a recent study commissioned by the Government of India. These NGOs work different issues such as livelihood, health, environment & climate change, etc. India receives huge overseas development grants every year. Indian economy is one of the big economies in the world. The government spends huge money for social sector. But still India is one of the poorest countries in the world.  India’s rank as per the UNDP Human Development Index was 119 in 2010. One reason for this is huge corruption in India, even in NGOs. There is a great need for auditing of these non-profit entities. The SA component will keep records of social audits of non-profit entities in the country. It will help the government track records of non-profit organizations regarding their assets with available funds, sources of funding, expenses, etc. Social impact of these organizations can be measured by parameters like number of direct and indirect beneficiaries, duration of operation, number of programmes, etc. The SDP application will help government understand which non-profit organizations should be monitored, regulated, punished or brought under tax code. To the SDP application information about a non-profit entity will be taken from its social audit report, which will be prepared by a reliable separate agency.

 

SDP Analytics will be very useful and effective in analyzing the present scenario in the country from sustainable development perspective. It will give administrators, policy makers and planners deep insight about the current situation in the country. Analysis will be presented in dashboard with the help of graphs, charts, tables, maps, logs, etc. SDP Analytics will help government analyze eco-friendliness or green practices of companies along with carbon credits, expenditure for CSR activities, etc. SDP Analytics will also provide comparisons between industry sectors against different parameters (e.g. Use of renewable energy in IT, Automotive, Telecom industry, etc). This kind of comparison will give policy makers a good idea about where regulation is needed (e.g. strict extended producer responsibility rules for a specific product or industry), where subsidy is needed (e.g. in case of encouraging renewable energy in a specific industry), etc. It will also show deviation, past and future trends of sustainable development indicators against set targets, comparisons, etc. These indicators will update government about its performance, failures and challenges. It will give clear picture about governance in all three dimensions (environmental, economic and social) of sustainable development. For the good governance to exist in the country analysis and improvement of these indicators are very much needed. It will deal with analysis and representation of information for Governance Intelligence on dashboard. The power of SDP Analytics can be truly unleashed if it is given access to relevant government records. Analysis will be done on the basis of the accessed information. Customization of SDP Analytics will allow the user to generate customized reports.

 

 

Figure 4: A sample user interface of SDP Analytics

 

 

 

SDP Portal will provide a web interface for interaction with citizens and government bodies regarding sustainable development planning. One government body will be the principal user of SDP application. But other than that many other government bodies (e.g. Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Ministry of Urban Development, and Ministry of Rural Development) may be interested to see the information and contribute to sustainable development planning. Citizens may also be interested in giving opinion about development programmes or combating climate change and poverty in the country. Here, they can see information and raise complaints about corrupt NGOs or environment law violation by industry.  For participatory development planning it is very important to connect with citizens. Thanks to Gov 2.0 now we have many ways to do so. The SDP Portal will be a platform to connect citizens with planners and policy makers. Views, complaints and suggestions of citizens that are relevant for sustainable development will go to the right people. They will then take those into account so that actions can be taken whenever necessary and the feasible ideas can be incorporated into the country's development plans, programmes or policies.

 

SDP application has potential to help policy makers significantly in making sustainable development happen in the country by managing disparate huge bulk of information and providing intelligent analysis to government for fighting against poverty and climate change.

 

For effective sustainable development planning the authors give a proposal to set up a body called Sustainable Development Authority (SDA), under Planning Commission, Government of India. SDA should be a dedicated body for dealing with different aspects of sustainable development planning and making sustainable development strategy for India. This body would be somehow similar to Sustainable Development Commission, UK. Ideally, SDA should be the main user of SDP application. Required necessary actions would be taken by the SDA whenever needed. It would communicate with other government bodies, which would be secondary users of the SDP application, such as Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Ministry of Urban Development and Ministry of Finance.

 

 

Corporate Sustainability Index

Now-a-days corporations are showing significant interests in sustainability issues. Many of them have gone ahead and set example to others by incorporating sustainability into their business plans, strategies and processes. In order to encourage and engage more business houses for sustainable development, some commendable initiatives have been taken abroad. In India some corporations (e.g. Infosys, Wipro, HUL, ITC and ONGC) are publishing annual sustainability reports voluntarily. But there is a need to make corporate sustainability a key issue in country’s economy. The authors propose here the following:

·      Mandatory publication of audited annual sustainability reports by all public limited stock market listed companies

·         Corporate Sustainability Index for NSE (National Stock Exchange) and BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) should be created under the guidance of SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) by defining required parameters. The GRI Framework would be significantly helpful in this case. It would be something in the line of Dow Jones Sustainability Index, FTSE4Good Index and HSBC Corporate Sustainability Index. Creation of Corporate Sustainability Index would build a sustainable investment ecosystem. Money making by aware investors would have influence on growth in eco-friendly products and services in the society. It would also boost corporate sustainability initiatives in the country.

·    Only top 20 companies as per their sustainability performance would be considered while calculating the index.

·        Strong government policies need to be formulated to shape company’s own policies regarding corporate sustainability.

·         Tax incentives to companies on the basis of good ratings in green practices or in sustainability reporting would encourage corporations to make sustainability a big agenda.

·        Best practices sharing amongst the corporate entities need be facilitated by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.

 

Systems Thinking

Systems thinking has been defined as “a discipline for seeing whole. It is a framework for seeing interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather than static snapshots” (The Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge, 1990).

Systems thinking has a great potential to provide solutions to many of the problems that the world is facing today. In case of environment protection it is very important to understand various systems, mechanisms, processes and their interactions with each other. To look into the ‘big picture’ is very crucial here. It does not make sense if we manufacture solar panels of short life span by using huge amount of energy & water and without proper disposal & recycling plan.

In case of India, the authors propose cluster wise industrial development. The main intention of the cluster would be producing products with long life span while keeping the principle of resource and energy efficiency in mind. A cluster would be used to accommodate industries suitable for closed-loop and minimum waste approach. For example, an automotive industry cluster could be developed in a zone. Only automobile manufacturers, ancillaries and industries that would supply raw materials to the neighbouring industries within the cluster would be located there. So, in that case produced material of an industrial unit would be used as raw material by another industrial unit within the cluster. Even the recycling factory useful for the automotive industrial sector would be located inside. The overall demand, supply, production and consumption of the cluster would be monitored by a local industrial authority responsible for that cluster. The local industrial authority would use an IT based application (something in the line of ERP application) to monitor the activities of the cluster and to track demand, supply, production and consumption. This way of industrial development would also lead to resource efficiency. It would also be characterized by less inventory time that would contribute to making the economy more efficient since inventory has a cost. Time and energy for transportation of materials would be saved significantly.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of each of the products produced in a cluster would help to have systems thinking perspective. Data about inventories, sales, LCA, etc. would help the local industrial authority to analyze the situation from sustainability perspective, to measure economic output and also to do cost-benefit analysis.

 

Demand-Supply Synchronization

In the past many experts have explained about the sustainable production and consumption in the context of sustainability. The concept has significant role to play in green economy. There could be many ideas around sustainable production and consumption. The authors here propose an idea regarding demand-supply synchronization that can be proved to be very effective.

In India there are many sabzi mandis (vegetable wholesale markets). They have a crucial role to play in deciding market price of agricultural produce. They authors propose to set up an IT based mechanism to link different sabzi mandis on virtual place and then to analyze the demand and supply for current and future scenario. The correct demand forecasting based on an economic and mathematical model can provide the following benefits:

·        It would reduce corruption in the sector and bring a systematic order in the chain:

     Farmers ---> Wholesale market ---> Retail market  ---> Consumers      

·     In India, the middle men take a large share of the profit in agri-business. Small holding farmers are not getting benefits even today when vegetable and food prices are really high. The demand-supply synchronization process would produce some insightful information for farmers and government. Farmers would be able to understand how much to be produced in near future (say, next six months). It would provide a way to economic prosperity of small farmers by reducing their frustration.

·      Government could use this technique to encourage sustainable agricultural practices which would give substantial benefit to the environment. It would enable linking of sustainable agriculture with e-agriculture. 

·       This technique would reduce losses in agricultural produce that happen due to poor handling, lack of storage facilities, inadequate transport facility, etc. Due to food loses global production of 4,600 kcal per person per day translate into the availability of 2,000 kcal per person per day.[v] About food losses in India, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) 2010 paper offered the following opening: “Losses of perishable farm produce are estimated to be over Rs. 1 trillion (Rs 100,000 crore) per annum, 57% of which is due to avoidable wastage and the rest due to avoidable costs of storage and commissions”. Even in the United States, 40% of food worth US$ 48.3 billion is wasted every year, together with embedded 350 million barrels of oil and 40 trillion litres of water per year [vi].

 

Green Fund

Green Fund would be a major source of funding for activities related to the concept of green economy. E.g. renewable energy business, waste recycling, rain water harvesting, etc.

For a developing country like India it may be difficult to invest huge money for smooth transition to green economy. That is why a financing mechanism is needed. Ministry of Finance and SDA should play key the role in Green Fund. Here, the authors propose to create Green Fund by collecting money from the following sources:

  • Taking certain amount of money from public limited stock market listed companies that have shown poor performance in ensuring environmental sustainability. The performance can be easily understood by analyzing the audited annual sustainability report of a company. The penalty amount might vary depending on the size of the company defined by the government.
  • People with annual income over Rs. 10,000,000 (ten million rupees or one crore) as per the record of Income Tax Department, Government of India would need to pay 2% of their annual income for contribution to the Green Fund. People who fall between the income slab of Rs. 5,000,000 (five million rupees or fifty lakhs) and Rs. 10,000,000 (one crore or ten million rupees) would need to pay only 1% of their annual income to the Green Fund.

 

The Green Fund would be used for the following purposes:

  • Giving subsidies to clean tech sectors like renewable energy
  • For taking various sustainability initiatives

 

Micro-level Planning

The concept of sustainable city has emerged as a popular concept these days. Sustainable city is a good way to deal with growing urbanization while fighting against climate change and poverty. There are many aspects to a sustainable city; e.g. green buildings, sustainable transport system, etc. Sustainable urban development and planning are very crucial to create sustainable cities. For India’s transition into green economy it is very crucial to understand where we stand at present and where need to go. Urbanization is happening at a rapid rate in India. At present approximately 31 % people live in urban India [vii]. It is expected to go upto 51 % by 2050 [viii]. McKinsey Global Institute projects that the India will have 68 cities with population of more than 1 million by 2030 up from 42 in 2008 [ix]. Here, the authors present some proposals regarding cities:

  • Micro-level sustainability planning along with urban development planning needs to be done at the level of urban local bodies (ULBs).
  • ULBs need to compulsorily publish annual sustainable development reports. The report should contain information relevant to sustainable development. E.g. number of households using renewable energy in the municipality area, waste management, water management, various sustainability initiatives by municipality and direct investment for that, plan to evolve as a sustainable cit, etc.
  • Annual sustainable development reports by ULBs should be submitted to SDA and Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD).
  • From the proposed Green Fund money should be given through proper channel to ULBs for usage in environmental sustainability.

 

 

Green Actions

Here, green action means that an action that will have positive impact on green economy. The authors have shown some examples of green actions here.

Key focus on durability of products: Efficient manufacturing techniques for producing products with high life span would result in effective resource utilization, less waste, etc.

Eco-labelling: A reliable body should provide eco-labels to products based on set eco-friendly criteria. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) provides ‘ISI’ label to products based on their quality standards. Something similar needs to be done with eco-labelling.

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR): There should be stringent EPR norms in India. It will not only help us save the planet but also help in shaping the recycling sector.

Organized waste handling sector: There is a great need for an organized waste handling sector in India. It will not only give benefits to the environment but also reduce health hazards of scavengers and un-organized solid waste collectors. Besides, it will improve their income.

More importance to clean-tech and eco-friendly sectors: Investment and research on clean-tech and emerging technologies like CCS (carbon capture and storage) and smart grid will yield long term benefits.

Building public awareness: It is very important for government, corporate world and civil society organizations to build public more aware about the environment and concept of green economy through education, media and other communication channels. It can really bring significant change. More number of people may tend to shift to green lifestyle. Small information about how much to eat to stay healthy can bring significant impact on reducing food waste.

 

 

How: Feasibility of proposal

The authors have already talked about rationale behind the proposed ideas and opinions. Many points about how to go about implementing those ideas have been covered in the previous sections. This section presents a few words about the feasibility of the proposed ideas along with the macro environment in India conducive to the proposal.

  • India has well defined National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and National e- Governance Plan (NeGP) that provide policy framework for adoption of the proposed ideas.
  • Many major companies in India (e.g. ITC, Infosys, Wipro and HUL) publish annual sustainability reports. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs is planning to make mandatory for companies to spend certain percentage of profit or revenue for CSR activities.
  • Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) is working on indentifying sustainable development indicators.
  • Transparency, accountability and social impacts of NGOs are serious concerns for government.
  • Aadhaar, the unique ID initiative of the Indian government, will help government implement many of the ideas suggested here.

 

 

 

Vision of the future under this proposal

 

 

Nurturing the roots of our country with a mix of sustainable ideas would help us to reap benefits and cultivate a Green Economy for the posterity. 

 

 

 

 

____________________________________________________________________________

 

[i] http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/downloads/jrc_reference_report_2007_11_climatepolicy.pdf

[ii] http://sres.ciesin.org/

[iii] http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=749&crid and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_carbon_dioxide_emissions

[iv] Green Economy Report, UNEP (2011)

[v] Chalmin P. and Gaillochet C. From Waste to Resource: An Abstract of World Waste Survey, Cyclope, Veolia Environmental Services, Edition Economica (2009)

[vi] The Environmental Food Crisis. UNEP (2009)

[vii] Census of India, 2011

[viii] United Nations Population Division (2010), World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision (POP/DB/WUP/Rev.2007), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York

[ix] http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/freepass_pdfs/india_urbanization/MGI_india_urbanization_chapter_1.pdf